Temperature Safety When Distilling – Distilling alcohol uses high temperatures – generally around 200 degrees Fahrenheit. High temperatures mean opportunities for accidents, so make sure that everyone who is in your distilling environment is aware of how hot your equipment will get. Controlling and monitoring the temperature will help you keep your distillery safe.
- 1 What temp should mash be for distilling?
- 2 Should you stir your mash before distilling?
- 3 Why mash out at 170?
- 4 How long is too long to mash?
- 5 What temperature should Belgian single mash be?
- 6 What temp should mash be when adding yeast?
What temp should mash be for distilling?
Warm the hot liquor to a strike temperature of roughly 68-70 degrees C (154-158F) to ensure a mash temperature of 63.5-64 degrees C (146-147F).
Should you stir your mash before distilling?
Final Thoughts – Stirring the mash after adding the yeast is not a good idea. You risk disrupting the fermentation process that turns sugar into alcohol. Instead, make sure your mash has the optimal conditions for the yeast to thrive. : Do You Stir Mash After Adding Yeast? 4 Things To Know
Why mash out at 170?
Mashout – Mashout is the term for raising the temperature of the mash to 77 °C (170 °F). This stops the enzymatic conversion of starches to fermentable sugars, and makes the mash and wort more fluid. Mashout is considered especially necessary if there is less than 3 liters of water per kilogram of grain (3 pints of water per pound of grain), or if the grain is more than 25% wheat or oats,
Why raise temp for mash out?
| DISCUSSION | – The primary purpose of a the mashout step is twofold– in addition to halting enzymatic activity and locking in the intended wort profile, raising the temperature at the end of the mash also reduces viscosity to make for easier lautering.
This step is appealing on the commercial scale where maximizing efficiency is a major focus, and until recently, it was viewed as a standard homebrewing practice as well. While there are conflicting opinions as to the perceptible impact a mashout has on beer, the fact tasters in this xBmt were unable to tell apart pale lagers produced with or without this step suggests it’s rather small.
Additionally, a commonly touted risk of the mashout step is tannin extraction from the grain, leading to increased risk of astringency. Considering the findings of this xBmt, it would appears astringency levels in both beers were similar, which according to participant reports following completion of the survey, was very low.
- As for the more objectively measurable claims made about the mashout step, I neither saw better extraction nor a difference in lautering between the beers in this xBmt, which suggests to me a lack of necessity on the homebrew scale.
- The act of honoring the traditional step mashes can be satisfying, especially when one is able to program mash steps with electric brewing rigs.
I’ve performed many mashouts over the years using various brewing setups and I can say I never noticed it having much of an impact. For commercial breweries who need to reduce as much risk as possible, performing a mashout step makes sense, but I’m not personally convinced it has any benefit on the homebrew scale.
Do you pour moonshine over ice?
‘If you want to try the spirit just as it is and you’re drinking it straight, I always recommend pouring it over ice,’ Elder says ‘In fact, I keep my bottles on ice when I do my tastings.’
How long can moonshine sit?
So you’ve found a bottle of moonshine from yesteryear. Is it still fit to drink? This is a question I’ve asked myself recently. I heard different things coming from different sources, so I decided to do a little research on my own, and here’s the answer.
- So, does moonshine go bad? In short, moonshine, like other plain spirits, does not really go bad.
- This means moonshine has an indefinite shelf life, unless you are dealing with a flavored option (which can spoil as a result of its high sugar density).
- Coming up, I’ll go over everything you need to know about moonshine and its shelf life so you can get the most out of your spirits.
Keep reading to find out if your moonshine is still good (or whether you should just chuck it!).
How long is too long to mash?
The Take Home Message – The amount of time you need to allot for the mash depends on the temperature of the mash, the diastatic power of the malt and the desired level of fermentability of your wort. Adding starchy adjuncts to your mash will also increase the required mashing time. Mashing for a full 60 minutes doesn’t hurt anything, but you might not be accomplishing anything — especially in a high-temperature mash — after 20 minutes has elapsed. With a standard 60-minute homebrew mash time, a iodine test is not needed. Almost any mash should convert in this time.
- However, if you are looking to shave time from your brew day, an iodine test can let you know when the bulk of the starch conversion is done.
- You can then decide how to proceed based on your goals for the fermentability of the wort.
- If you enjoy Beer & Wine Journal, please consider supporting us by purchasing my book — “Home Brew Recipe Bible,” by Chris Colby (2016, Page Street Publishing).
It is available from Amazon and Barnes & Noble, You can also find the nearest independent bookstore that sells it on Indiebound, — Related articles Tannins in the Mash Two Mash Out Options Should You Acidify Your Sparge Water? Extract Efficiency Tradeoffs
Does mash temp affect pH?
How does temperature and pH affect mashing and lautering? Brewers manage the temperature and pH values to control enzyme performance in the mash, reduce tannin extraction during lautering, and to enhance yeast performance during fermentation, as well as the overall product quality (Buttrick, 2012).
During mashing, the enzyme activity depends mostly on the temperature, it increases with rising temperatures and each enzyme reaches its own optimum range (Kunze, 2014). Raising the mash temperature increases the rate of catalyst reactions, accelerates the rates of protein unfolding and precipitation, quickens diffusion and dissolution steps, aids in mixing and at certain temperatures causes starch gelatinization and breaks down the cellular structure of endosperm tissues in unmodified (Briggs, 2004).
If the mashing temperature is below the optimum range for proper conversion, it may reduce grain extract and increase lautering duration (Agu, 2011). Different mashing temperature steps are designed to maximize the hydrolysis of different grist compositions.
- Proteases with an ideal range of 35-45°C break down the protein matrix holding the starch granules.
- Glucanases perform best at 45-55°C and break down hemicellulose gums, whereas amylases break down the starch granules and work best at 61-67°C (Buttrick, 2012).
- At higher temperatures enzyme inactivation occurs because of the unfolding of the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme called denaturation (Kunze, 2014),
Wort fermentability can be altered by mashing temperature because of the lower denaturation temperature of β-amylase; attenuation will not be apparent until post-fermentation (Muller, 1991). The structure of the enzyme can also change depending on the pH value. Figure 1. The reaction of Bicarbonate in an Acidic Solution to Increase Alkalinity (Briggs, 2004) The grist composition will be the largest influence of wort compounds produced with some considerations being malt to adjunct percentages, average protein content, and malt modification. Figure 2. The reaction of Calcium Ions when Phosphoric Acid is used to Increase Acidity (Briggs, 2004) Calcium phosphate is less soluble at higher temperatures causing mash pH to lower during decoction mashes and declines further during boiling. A source of error is from measuring the pH of wort or the mash is at ambient temperatures as weak acids separate more as the temperature increases so the pH of the solution falls.
- At 65°C, the pH of the wort is approximately 0.35pH lower than ambient temperature and 0.45pH lower at 78°C.
- As the temperature of mash changes from the different rests and mashing steps, so will the pH (Briggs, 2004),
- Mashing a lightly kilned malt with distilled water results in a wort of about 5.8-6.0pH, this value is maintained by the natural buffering solutions from phosphates and proteins from the grist.
Single-stage infusion mashes are run at a compromise range of 5.2-5.4pH which results in 5.5-5.8pH at ambient temperatures. Reducing the pH too many results in greater soluble nitrogenous materials but extends the saccharification time and reduces extract yield.
Lowering the pH with calcium and other means accelerates the rate of degradation of starch, increases total soluble nitrogen and free amino nitrates and reduces wort colour. Simultaneously, alterations of the solubility characteristics of proteins occur, the buffering power of the wort increases, and eventual hop utilizations decreases (Briggs, 2004),
A result of the increase of the free amino acids released is that they contribute as aromatic pre-cursors while minimizing the formation of ferulic and coumaric acids (Schwarz, 2012). Further lowering the pH using lactic acid from either chemical or biological sources has been shown to improve the quality and processing of beers when the grist consists of 20% (Lowe, 2005) and 50% unmalted barley (Lowe, 2004).
- Enzymes optimally within narrow pH ranges: peptidases are at 5-5.2pH; glucanases at 4.7-5pH; and β- and α-amylase are at 5.4-5.6pH and 5.6-5.8pH respectively (Buttrick, 2012).
- In mashing, the hydrolysis of a substrate relies on the mixture in the grist, water to grain ratio, grind coarseness and grist distribution of particle.
Similarly, the mash conditions and brewhouse operations can affect the optimum pH (Briggs, 2004), Unfortunately, the relationships between wort composition and the temperature are much better understood than that of wort composition and pH as there is limited research dedicated to the matter (Bamforth, 2001).
However, the principal method of controlling the pH of the beer is during mashing; the extraction of buffering solutions of hydrolysing barley compounds will directly affect the final pH structure of the final beer (Taylor, 1990), During wort collection, buffers are rinsed from the mash which increases pH, particularly if there are bicarbonate ions present in the sparge liquor.
The higher pH draws unwanted polyphenols and flavours from the grain bed. Best practises are to maintain liquor pH are reducing bicarbonates and by using proper levels of calcium (Briggs, 2004), Additionally, maintaining the temperature of the grain bed during lautering is known to improve filtration by reducing the viscosity of the mash (Bühler, 1996) During the hot break in the kettle, the wort pH reduces by 0.2-0.3 mostly from the further precipitation of calcium-based salts.
- This brings the wort near 5pH, which is ideal for vigorous fermentation for many yeast strains.
- Fermentation causes a drop of 0.5-07pH.
- At the end of fermentation, barley-based beers are approximately 4.1-4.5pH with wheat beers being slightly more acidic.
- Depending on the practices in the brewery cellar, beers such as lambics and other sour styles will have an even lower pH level from acid-producing bacteria (Buttrick, 2012).
References Agu, R. (2011) Effect of Mashing Temperature on the Processability of Malted Barley. Tech.Q. Master Brew. Assoc. Am.48(1), 4-8. Bamforth, C. (2001) pH in Brewing: An Overview. Tech.Q. Master Brew. Assoc. Am.38(1), 1-9. Briggs, D., Boulton, C., Brookes, P., and Stevens, R.
- 2004) Brewing Science and Practice.
- Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, UK, 104-122.
- Bühler, T., McKechnie, M., and Wakeman, R.
- 1996) Temperature Induced Particle Aggregation in Mashing and its Effect on Filtration Performance.
- Food and Bioproducts Processing, 74 (4), 207–211.
- Buttrick, P.
- 2012) Mashing, in The Oxford Companion To Beer; Oliver, G.
Ed.; Oxford University Press, New York, 576-578. Kunze, W., Manger, H., and Pratt, J. (2014) Technology Brewing & Malting, 5th ed; Handel, O. Ed.; VLB, Berlin, 220-225. Lowe, D.P., Ulmer, H.M., Barta, R.C., Goode, D.L., and Arendt, E.K. (2005) Biological Acidification of a Mash Containing 20% Barley Using Lactobacillus Amylovorus FST 1.1: Its Effects on Wort and Beer Quality.
- Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists.63 (3), 96–106.
- Lowe, D.P., Ulmer, H.M., Sinderen, D., and Arendt, E.K.
- 2004) Application of Biological Acidification to Improve the Quality and Processability of Wort Produced from 50% Raw Barley.
- Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 110 (2), 133–140.
Muller, R. (1991) T he Effects of Mashing Temperature and Mash Thickness on Wort Carbohydrate Composition.J. Inst. Brew.97, 85-92. Schwarz, K., Boitz, L., and Methner, F. (2012) Release of Phenolic Acids and Amino Acids During Mashing Dependent on Temperature, pH, Time, and Raw Materials.J.
Does moonshine mash need to be air tight?
Fermenting in the Wrong Container – Fermentation is vital to the moonshine-making process. It occurs before distillation. The corn mash is placed in a container and left to ferment for about a week so the sugar or grains turn into alcohol. One of the most common mistakes new moonshiners make is fermenting in an air-tight container.
What temperature should Belgian single mash be?
Notes / Process –
Add 500mg potassium metabisulfite to 20 gallons water to remove chlorine / chloramine (if required). Water treated with brewing salts to our Balanced flavour profile: Ca=50, Mg=10, Na=16, Cl=70, SO4=70 (Hit minimums on Ca and Mg, keep the Cl:SO4 ratio low and equal. Do not favour flavour / maltiness or bitterness / dryness. For balanced beers.). While this balanced profile is our preference, for something closer to Westmalle water, in his book Brew like a Monk Stan Hieronymus indicates to use: Ca=41, Mg=8, Na=16, Cl=60, SO4=26. Main difference is lower SO4 which will round out the hop bite slightly. Try brewing it both ways and see which you prefer. For more information on how to adjust your water, refer to our step by step Water Adjustment guide.1.25 qt/lb mash thickness. Start the mash at 131F and hold for 10 mins (high end of the protein rest range). Ramp up to 149F and hold for 90 mins (beta rest). Ramp up to 155F and hold for 30 mins (alpha rest). Raise to 168F mashout temperature and hold for 10 mins. If your system does not allow for step mashes, try a single infusion mash at 150F for 90 mins, followed by a mashout to 168F for 10 mins (if possible). ~90 min fly sparge with ~5.6-5.8 pH water (measured at mash temperature). Boil for 90 minutes, adding Whirlfloc and hops per schedule. Lid on at flameout, start chilling immediately. Cool the wort quickly to 62F (we use a one-pass convoluted counterflow chiller to quickly lock in hop flavour and aroma) and transfer to fermenter, Oxygenate the chilled wort to a level of 14 ppm dissolved oxygen. For more information refer to our Aerating / Oxygenating Wort guide. Pitch yeast and ferment at 64F (wort temperature), allowing temperature to rise to 70F over one week (raise 1 degree per day). We use modified stainless fermenting buckets in wine fridges, Allow yeast to continue until finished. Do not allow temperature to drop. If yeast seems to be stalling, do not be afraid to raise temperature as high as 75F to ensure proper attenuation. Assume fermentation is done if the gravity does not change over ~3 days. Before packaging you may optionally rack to a brite tank (we use 5 gallon glass carboys ) that has been purged with CO2 to avoid oxygen pickup, add 1 tsp of unflavoured gelatin dissolved in a cup of hot distilled water per 5 gallons of beer, and allow to clear for 2-3 days. In most cases we recommend skipping this step as the less you handle the beer and potentially expose it to oxygen, the better. The beer will drop brilliantly clear on its own during the conditioning period. Package as you would normally. Though some will argue that a Tripel should only be bottled, if we still had to bottle we wouldn’t be brewing beer. 😉 We rack to kegs that have first been purged with CO2 and then chill to near freezing while carbonating at the same time in a 6-keg conditioning fridge, After ~1-2 weeks at serving pressure the kegs will be carbonated and ready to serve. In a hurry? Feel free to raise the CO2 pressure temporarily to 30-40 PSI to carbonate fast over a 24 period, and then turn back down to serving pressure. Carbonate this beer to higher than normal levels, around 2.5 to 3.5 volumes of CO2. The beer will improve greatly if conditioned just above freezing for 4 weeks before serving and will continue to change over time. Sampling is recommended.
For detailed brewing instructions, see our Brew Day Step by Step guide. Enjoy! Questions? Visit our Belgian Tripel forum thread, Interested in seeing what we’re brewing right now? Follow us on Instagram for pictures and videos of our brewing activities as they happen.
What temp should mash be when adding yeast?
Video Transcription – Howdy folks, and welcome back for another Heads episode. In this episode we are going to be discussing the turbo yeast mash. While there is a lot of bad rep around turbo yeast, we definitely recommend starting this way for new distillers.
It’s so easy, and it’s super cheap, so you can really get the process under your belt with a couple batches without really breaking the bank, and to be honest I still use turbo yeast mashes, especially when I am doing something like using one of my essences. Turbo yeast mashes are really pretty simple.
You just mix sugar with water, add the yeast, let it ferment, and you should be good to go with the distilling process. There’s a couple optional extras that we can add in that we will discuss later on in this video. But, to begin with, we’ve just got three gallons of warm water and 18 pounds of sugar.
- We add the sugar to the water and stir it all in.
- Again, we used warm water just to help the sugar dissolve and we will be adding the other two gallons of water later on.
- So, now that we’ve got the sugar mostly dissolved, we are going to add back in our cool water to help cool back down the mash.
- Generally, you want to add until there is about 5 or 6 gallons of total liquid.
With all the sugar dissolved and the cool water added, it is just about lukewarm temperature which should be fine to add your yeast. Cut open the yeast packet, and pour the entire thing in. give it a quick stir to mix the yeast in, put the lid on, and you should be ready for fermentation.
- With our 48-hour turbo yeast, it will generally take about 48 hours to reach 14% alcohol by volume, and 5 days total to reach about 20% alcohol by volume.
- Generally, you want to ferment it at a little bit warmer temperatures than you would a typical, beer yeast or wine yeast, at 70-85 degrees Fahrenheit.
Optimal temperature would be about 77 degrees Fahrenheit. At temperatures higher than 77 degrees Fahrenheit, the yeast are going to produce more byproducts, giving your final distillate a slightly funkier flavor. So, as you can see, turbo yeast mashes are very easy and simple to do.
They are also very cheap since a 25 pound bag of sugar at Costco costs about $10, and the bag of yeast costs about $4. As a beginning distiller, this is a very cost effective way for you to get your feet under you and learn about distilling without breaking the bank. Hopefully you found this informative and good luck to you.
And as always, thanks for tuning in!.