- Copper Stills Parts and Tubing.
- Still Heat Controllers and Burners.
- Still Connectors and Parts.
- Clamps and Flanges Still Connectors.
- Carbon and Filter Units.
- Column Packing & Hose Packages.
- 1 What are the parts of a home still?
- 2 What are the 3 columns?
- 3 What is a reflux still?
- 4 What are the parts of a distiller?
What are the parts of a moonshine still called?
Common Moonshine Terms
ABV – “Alcohol by volume” – is the percentage of alcohol (ethanol) that is contained within a liquid. Alcometer – is a measuring device used to determine the % of alcohol also referred to as a spirit hydrometer Backins – Weak whiskey produced at the end of a double run or at the end of a run through a thumper. Bead – The bubbles that form on the surface of shaken whiskey and reflect the alcoholic content. Beading Oil – An oil dripped into low-quality whiskey by Prohibition-era moonshiners to make the alcohol bead like quality whiskey. Beer – The liquid part of fermented mash. Beer, also called “teedum,” was often made for its own sake rather than for distilling. Blackpot – A submarine still in which the mash is allowed to ferment directly in the still rather than in barrels or boxes. Boiler – Also called a “pot,” the container in which mash is initially cooked or heated. Bootleg Turn – A whiskey-hauler’s technique of turning a car around in a sudden controlled skid. Cap – The removable top of a still. Caps are named by their shapes. Carboy – is a glass or plastic vessel used in fermenting beverages, Usually it is fitted with a rubber stopper and a fermentation lock to prevent bacteria and oxygen from entering during the fermentation process. Charge – The act of filling the still or the thumper with beer or pumice. Condenser – The part of the still, typically a copper coil, in which the steam condenses into liquid alcohol. Corn – Whiskey made primarily from corn mash. Dropping the Bead – Also called “cutting” or “proofing,” the process of lowering the strength of liquor by mixing it with weaker alcohol or water. Double Run – The technique of running alcohol through a still twice. Flake Stand – The wooden water-filled box in which the condenser is cooled. Fermentation lock – Also called air lock. Is a device used in beer brewing and wine making that allows carbon dioxide released during fermentation to escape the fermenter, while not allowing air to enter the fermenter, thus avoiding oxidation. Fermenter – Container used to Ferment wash. Carboy or air tight food grade pail is often used. Foreshots – “the low boiling point compounds that come out of the still first. They contain acetone, methanol, various esters and aldehydes, and other volitiles. Foreshots are to be considered poisonous and should be discarded.” Gauger – A revenue agent in the pre-Prohibition era. Granny Fee – Bribery or payoff money paid by moonshiners to law enforcement officers. Heads – “come out after the foreshots, and are almost pure alcohol, except that they are contaminated with trace amounts of unwanted cogeners ” Liquor Car – A car modified to haul illegal alcohol to market. Malt – Barley malt for mixing in mash. Corn that is sprouted and then ground can be used in place of barley malt. Mash – Some combination of water, grain, malt, yeast, and sugar that is allowed to ferment before being distilled into alcohol. Peckin’ the Cap – A technique of rapping on the cap to tell by the hollow sound if the mash has boiled into the cap. Pot Still – A pot still is a type of still used in distilling spirits such as whisky or brandy. Heat is applied directly to the pot containing the wash (for whisky) or wine (for brandy). This is called a batch distillation (as opposed to a continuous distillation) Pot-Tail – The “slop” of fruit or grain left over after the alcohol has been distilled out of it. Also called “thumper tails.” Puke – The boiling over of a still Pumice – Crushed fermented fruit and sugar used to make brandy. Revenuer – A government agent whose job is to catch people involved in moonshining. Reflux – Reflux is a distillation technique involving the condensation of vapors and the return of this condensate to the system from which it originated. Reflux Still – Produces a flavorless spirit though the process of reflux Runner – A person who hauls moonshine. Singlings – Un-proofed whiskey that has gone through one distilling and will be distilled again. Steam Outfit – A still which uses steam rather than a direct flame to heat the mash inside the pot. Still – The combination of the cap and boiler in which the mash is initially distilled. “Still” is also used to describe the entire distilling setup. Still Hand – A person who works at a still site. Stillhouse – Historically a small permanent building constructed specifically for distilling. Stir Stick – A stick with a fork at the end used to stir mash. Wire is commonly stretched back and forth across the fork. Stuck Fermentaion – occurs when the yeast become dormant before the fermentation has completed. Unlike an “arrested fermentation” where the winemaker intentionally stops fermentation Submarine Still – A large-capacity style of still in common use since the 1920s. Shaped like a low box with two curved ends, the submarine still usually has two wooden sides. Swab Stick – A bristled wooden stick used to clean out a still. Thumper – The part between the boiler and the coil that distills mash and redistills the alcohol coming out of the boiler. Also called a “doubler,” “thumper keg,” or “thump barrel.” Turnip Still – An old style of still pot that has a round, squat shape. Worm – A coil submerged in a water-filled container. Alcohol-laden steam condenses to a liquid in the coil. Yeast Starter – A yeast starter is used to initiate cell activity or increase the cell count before using it to make your beer. The yeast will grow in this smaller volume, usually for 1-2 days, which then can be added to 5 gallons of wort.
: Common Moonshine Terms
What are the different types of still columns?
Distillation – Pot v Column distillation There are essentially two types of still, the pot still and the column still. Of the two, the pot still, also known as the alembic still, is the simplest and not unlike a giant kettle, indeed the Dutch call their pot stills Distilleerketel. Pot stills have changed little in hundreds of years, and the design and shape of the chamber or ‘pot’ of modern day stills would be recognisable to distillers from centuries ago.
Extensively pot stills consist of a chamber (pot) to which heat is applied. The contents boil and the vapours that collect in the head at the top of the pot are directed into a space that tapers to a narrow tube, called the swan’s neck. This leads to the condenser where the vapours are cooled by running cold water so reverting them back to liquid form.
The biggest advance in pot still technology in the past few hundred years has been the method of heating the still. Distillers of old had little choice but to light a fire directly under their still but today high-tech boilers provide a reliable and controllable source of steam, allowing fine adjustments to be made to the running temperature of the still.
Heating via steam jackets and steam heated serpentine coils also reduces the likelihood of burning associated with direct heated stills. However, despite advances in steam heating, some distillers still choose to use direct heat as they believe the slight risk of burning essential to the character of their distillate.
They include cognac distillers and some malt whisky distillers. Thanks to modern monitoring and testing equipment, today’s distillers are also better able to judge how a still is running and when to cut from heads (or foreshots) to heart and heart (or spirit) to tails (or faints).
- However, despite these advances, pot stills are very inefficient users of energy and are also limited by having to be batch operated – meaning they are charged, operated and emptied, then cleaned before being filled with the next batch of wash.
- The beginning of the 19th century saw attempts to develop a still to speed and improve the distilling process and in 1826 Robert Stein invented a still consisting of two columns.
An Irishman and patent office cleric, Aeneas Coffey considerably improved the design of the new still and patented his ‘Coffey’ still in 1831. Coffey’s then radical ‘column’ or ‘patent’ still is also termed a ‘continuous still’ because, as the name suggests, they can be run continuously without the need to stop and start between batches as in pot still distillation.
- This coupled with the higher concentration of alcohol in the final distillate make column stills much more economical to operate than pot stills.
- The invention of the Coffey still had a dramatic effect on the world’s liquor industry as it enabled distillers to produce a much purer spirit, on a larger scale and cheaper than was previously possible.
By the middle of the 19th century the quality of spirit produced from the new continuous stills was close to the standard of spirit we enjoy today. This had an obvious effect on vodka production but has also changed other spirit categories. For example, English gin distillers reduced or omitted the sugar previously used to soften the harshness of the old style gins to create a new style of gin that would eventually become known as ‘dry gin’, then ‘London dry gin’.
The column still also directly led to the creation of ‘blended whisky’, a category which outsells pot still produced malt whisky by factor close to ten to one. As with any still, continuous stills work on the principle that water, alcohol and the various congeners in the wash all vaporise at different temperatures.
The first column stills consisted of two columns but today’s can consist of as many as seven interlinked columns. Column stills behave like a series of interlinked pot stills, each formed in a long vertical tube. Within the tube, or column, are usually plates like floors in an apartment block.
On each floor, often referred to as a ‘bubble plate’, is a pool of trapped wash and holes in these plates allow rising vapour to bubble up through the wash. In Coffey’s still, wash enters at the top floor of the still and falls through the floors to meet steam rising from the bottom of the still. The steam vaporises the alcohols in the wash, and carries them upwards, while the wash (with its alcohols removed) falls to lower floors of the still where it boils and creates more steam.
The rising vapour, which is low in alcohol, will naturally condense in the trapped liquid on each floor but the law of physics dictates that energy cannot be created or destroyed, so something has to give, forcing something to evaporate from the layer of liquid.
Because alcohol has a lower boiling point than water it is inevitably alcohol that evaporates. Thus alcoholic vapour passes through the floors and as it rises through the column, the temperature of each successive floor is slightly lower than the previous floor, so the vapour in equilibrium with the liquid at each floor is progressively more enriched with alcohol.
Consequently the vapour becomes progressively more concentrated or purer as it rises through the column’s floors. Column stills allow what is termed as ‘fractional distillation’ as various different compounds (or fractions) are trapped according to their boiling point on different floors of the still so allowing each component of the distillate to be removed from that section of the still.
- The more floors a column still has so the more rectified (purer) the finial distillate will be.
- Rather than build skyscraper column stills it is common to interlink several columns.
- As the spirit passes through the successive columns it becomes progressively purer.
- In a four column still, the first column, called the Analyser has steam rising and wash descending.
This strips the alcohol, producing ‘high wines’ at 65-70% alcohol by volume. The second, Extractive Column, starts the rectification process prior to the third, Rectification Column. A fourth Contracting Column basically recovers spirit from the heads (foreshots) and tails (faints) produced by the other three columns.
Modern fractional distillation columns often utilise vacuum pumps to lower boiling points within the still and such stills can concentrate ethanol alcohol to 95.6% by volume. This mixture is an azeotrope with a boiling point of 78.1°C and further rectification (purification) by distillation is not possible, nor necessary for the production of alcoholic beverages.
(The chemical industry remove the remaining water using other means, such as hydrophilic chemicals or azeotropic distillation to produce a liquid closer to 100% ethanol alcohol.) : Distillation – Pot v Column distillation
What are the parts of a home still?
Beginner’s guide to home distilling In 1996, New Zealand became that rare thing – a country where home distilling spirits is legal. Since then the ranks of distillers have swelled. It’s not just alcohol that’s made, but fragrant, home-crafted essential oils and herbal distillates, called hydrosols. Johanna Knox takes a closer look at this beguiling hobby. At its most basic, distillation involves heating a liquid until it becomes vapour in order to seperate out certain components. It is essentially the same process that occurs in nature when surface water evaporates in the sun, rises into the sky and condenses in the clouds to become rain.
Distilling is an art that’s been used since ancient times for medicinal and spiritual purposes, to purify water, and to create balms, essences, and perfumes. The distilling process can be a lifesaver when it’s used to remove salt and other impurities from water – including heavy metals, poisons, bacteria and viruses.
For more indulgent purposes it can be used to make alcohol and home-crafted essential oils. During distillation, a liquid mixture is boiled in a still and the vapour captured and recondensed. The most volatile components evaporate first, allowing you to separate out all the different ingredients of a liquid mixture. Stills come in a huge range of shapes and sizes – everything from giant industrial contraptions bursting with metal pipes and dials down to little plug-in gadgets that look a bit like a benchtop coffee grinder. One of the simplest distillation devices is the pot still, consisting of a single heated chamber and a vessel to collect purified alcohol.
What do plates do in a still?
Bubble Plates and Bubble Caps for Distilling – are used to create more reflux in the column, ultimately to create multiple distillation cycles during one run. In review, a distillation column is phase change occurring over and over until it reaches the final the final condenser. is the main factor of creating the phase change. As your vapor rises out of the kettle and into your column, it is going to flow through the path of least resistance. The Bubble Cap is designed in 2 parts, the underside, which is basically a tube with windows at the top, and the mushroom top – designed with many arches around the edge. The vapor flows up the tube and through the windows where it is pushed back down towards the plate and typically out of the arches. As you continue through the run, a waterbed will develop on each plate, this is caused by the vapor being knocked down as it hits cooler temperatures of the plate or the column itself. As vapor passes through the bubble cap, it is pushed back towards the plate, where the vapor will condense, heating the water bed and creating a vapor of higher proof distillate. This happens on each plate you have, so if you are working on a vodka and you have 22 plates – that’s 22 times distilled. StillDragon also offers the ProCap which is a bubble cap and downcomer integrated, which allows for a speedier run. Let’s not forget the benefits of the copper being so predominant in the vapor path. Each works to extract the crap out of the liquid. The more plates you have the vapor going through, the cleaner and purer your distillate is going to be. Of course, not every distillery only wants to do vodka or gin which require the flavorless, higher purity distillate created from having all the plates. Enter the pot still. Whiskeys and rums need a less pure, more flavorful spirit to create the final recipe so they would be better off with a pot still or use of a whiskey hat versus the plates. The pot still and whiskey hat create some reflux as the vapor hits the sides that are exposed to the lower external temperatures. The vapor can also go straight through to the lyne arm and into the product condenser. The downside is the expense of having two, You’ll need twice the money, twice the plumbing, twice the heating elements, heck you’ll need almost 2 of everything. Don’t forget to take into consideration the space requirements for both stills. Using all of these factors, StillDragon developed the DoubleDragon. It incorporates both the pot still and the bubble cap still design onto one kettle. The kettle allows you to create multiple product types without much added labor, time, or expense. Check back next month for a deep dive into the benefits of the StillDragon® DoubleDragon. > For more commercial distilling needs, browse, : Choosing the Right Bubble Cap for Distilling | Distilling Blog
What are the 3 columns?
Many of Saskatoon’s first buildings have columns as an architectural feature. The Greek architectural styles have been revived in architecture off and on since antiquity, becoming popular in the Renaissance, and then again in the 18th and 19th centuries, lingering a bit into the 20th century.
This style recalled the beauty of ancient architecture, and it was also a symbol of power, agelessness, and in some ways the roots of democracy as well. Columns are probably the most recognizable aspect of ancient Greek and Roman architecture. Although their primary function is as structural support for buildings, the design of columns in ancient Greece and Rome changed several times through antiquity.
There a five different orders or styles of columns. The first three orders, Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian, are the three principal architectural orders of ancient architecture. They were developed in ancient Greece but also used extensively in Rome. The final two, Tuscan and Composite, were developed in ancient Rome.
- Columns in ancient Greece and Rome were nearly always made of marble that was imported from various places around the Mediterranean Sea.
- It was formed when limestone, which began life as sediments of fossils, shells, and coral in ancient seas, was deeply buried and changed by heat and pressure.
- As you walk around visiting the buildings, see if you can spot all these columns that were inspired by these different Greek and Roman styles! Learn more about columns, then test your knowlege with a quiz ! Stuck? Here are the answers,
When they are open again, the Museum of Antiquities at the University of Saskatchewan is a great place to visit to learn more about art and antiquity, and explore their collection of Greek, Roman, Egyptian, and Near Eastern sculptures.
What is a reflux still?
What Is a Reflux Still? – A Reflux Still is essentially a Column Still, It typically generates a much higher proof, yet much less flavorful alcohol, than a pot still. The width and height of your reflux system will greatly determine the purity of your product and the speed that it produces distillate.
- Column diameter = speed.
- Column height = purity.) Cleaner products equal more mixing variety for cocktails.
- Or a greater likelihood of getting drunk without fear of the dreaded hangover.
- Either end goal ‘tis fun! The term reflux applies to phase change from vapor to liquid.
- This phase cycling is the outcome of a cooling management setup, which is what most stills are.
Other types of reflux stills are liquid management (LM) and vapor management (VM). Today, we are only discussing cooling management (CM).
What are the three parts of a home?
What are the different parts of a house? – The main parts of a house can be categorized as the frame, the exterior, the interior and the division of rooms. While no two houses are completely the same, the basic structure of a house is more or less uniform. See below for the breakdown of all the spaces you need to know about.
What temperature does moonshine still run at?
Still Head Temperature For Making Moonshine – When To Start And Finish Collecting – Knowing when to start collecting moonshine from your still and when to finish is very important. You will often start to see some product dripping from your still when the Head / Column temperature reaches 56 Celsius.
- But generally the temperature range that you want to collect Moonshine within is between 78-82 °C and we generally stop collecting the distillate once we start getting fusels coming out.
- This is generally happens at a head temperature of 94 °C or higher.
- To Learn more about the process of Making Moonshine Head over to our page.
: Still Temperature Guide For Making Moonshine
What are the components of a whiskey still?
Learn How to Build a Moonshine Still – Our show you in real time how to build a moonshine still and we will show you the details of our moonshine and whiskey still plans. Pot stills consist of three basic components: the large pot, or tank where the corn, grain or other mash is heated, a condenser, which draws the alcohol out of the mash, and a receiving vessel to catch the alcohol as it is distilled.
What are the parts of a distiller?
DISTILLATION APPARATUS Distillation is a common operation in many laboratories for the purpose of separating and/or purifying components of a liquid mixture. The apparatus used consists of three major parts: distillation flask (or pot) to heat the mixture and volatilize the components, a condenser to cool the vapors back to liquid state, and a collection vessel. Many of the hazards associated with the distillation process have been discussed in previous sections (glassware, flowing water, heating devices). However, the importance of the procedure is such that it is advisable to collect the warnings in this one place to make sure nothing goes unnoticed.
- The apparatus is usually made of glass and therefore subject to breakage.
- All components of the distillation apparatus should be secured to a stable stand or rack to prevent it from falling over.
- All the glassware, particularly the part to be heated, should be checked for cracks prior to use.
- Connections between the glass parts may involve rubber or cork stoppers but in more modern apparatus standard taper connections are used.
If stoppers are used, it must be known that the hot vapors will not react with the rubber or cork and thus contaminate the products. If standard taper connections are used, any lubricant used to make tight seals must also not react, melt or evaporate and contaminate the product.
- The condenser must generally be connected to a source of running water to provide cooling for the vapors.
- The proper method is to connect the input hose to the condenser at the end furthest from the heated flask and the outflow hose nearest the heated flask.
- This prevents the hottest vapors from contacting the coldest water and creating a large thermal shock to the glassware.
As mentioned in the section on flowing water, the hoses must be connected tightly enough to the condenser that they will not come loose if the water pressure should increase during the experiment. Usually this means that something like copper wire is twisted around the tubing at the joint to prevent it from coming away.
- The flow of water must be sufficient to accomplish condensation without being so fast as to cause undue hose pressure or splashing of outflow water, remembering that flow rates can change during the day after they have initially been set.
- The distillation flask should preferably be a round-bottomed one rather than a flat-bottomed one for smoothness of boiling.
The flask should never be more than half-filled with the liquid mixture to be distilled. Greater filling leads to bubbles and sometimes foaming that is constricted in the narrowing part of the flask and gets out of control. To make boiling smoothest, boiling chips or tubes should be added to the liquid in the distillation flask before heating has begun,
- It is very important not to add chips or tubes to heated liquid as it may suddenly begin to boil and eject hot liquid out onto the operator.
- The chips are generally made of sharp pieces of broken ceramic or hard plastic.
- Tubes are usually of the capillary type with both ends open.
- Heating the distillation flask requires care.
The liquids being distilled are often flammable so that flame is not the preferred heat source. Heating mantles or sand baths are good sources of heat to conform to the round-bottomed flasks. Care must be taken not to let any vapors near the control switches that may spark when opening and closing.
- Doing the distillation inside a hood is a good practice.
- One last word of caution about the apparatus is in order.
- There have been cases where the operators decided to make the connection between the condenser and the receiving vessel a tight one using a stopper or standard taper connection.
- This must NOT be done as it creates a completely sealed system.
When the distillation flask is heated and vapors begin to rise they will expand and create a pressure in such a sealed system that will inevitably blow the joints apart. This generally causes vapors to escape into the surrounding room (or hopefully hood) if not the glassware to be broken.
What is a thumper on a still?
What Is a Thumper? – A thumper is essentially a parasitic kettle connected to the primary distilling kettle, The thumper gets heated with the heat already produced to feed the primary kettle. Evidently, the thumper gets its name from the sound it makes while in operation.