- 1 What foods to avoid while detoxing?
- 2 What should I take when I stop drinking?
- 3 Why am I so hungry when I quit drinking?
- 4 Why am I so hungry after quitting alcohol?
- 5 Are bananas good for detoxing?
- 6 Can you eat yogurt while detoxing?
- 7 Can you eat eggs while detoxing?
- 8 Do heavy drinkers lose their appetite?
- 9 Do you crave sugar after quitting alcohol?
What foods are good for recovering alcoholics?
Recovering from alcohol misuse means forming new, lifelong habits, including ones related to nutrition, Proper nutrients are key to your overall health. Vitamins and minerals can:
Boost your immune system Strengthen teeth and bonesPromote healthy hair and skin Support brain and nervous system function
Good nutrition also helps your brain rework old connections and make new ones. That’s called neuroplasticity. Alcohol and drug misuse interrupt these connections. This can make it hard to stay away from alcohol while you’re trying to get better. Alcohol use disorder impacts your health in different ways.
- You don’t feel hungry.
- Alcohol slows down your appetite.
- You may even forget to eat and become malnourished.
- You choose less nutritious foods.
- When you drink too much, you’re more likely to eat foods that are high in added sugar, salt, and saturated fat,
- Your blood sugar dips.
- Alcohol and poor eating can stop your liver from releasing glucose into your blood.
This can lead to low blood sugar, also known as hypoglycemia, Organ damage. Heavy drinking makes it harder for your organs to work the way they’re supposed to, especially your stomach lining, pancreas, intestines, and liver. Loss of appetite is one of the signs of liver diseases like cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis,
Digestive problems. Too much alcohol can cause inflammation in your stomach lining and pancreas. This could lead to ulcers in your stomach and esophagus. It also affects your body’s ability to absorb B vitamins and folic acid, It can trigger irritable bowel syndrome, acid reflux, and other gastrointestinal illnesses, too.
Damage to your liver and pancreas from heavy drinking can lead to imbalances in your body. Here’s a look at what’s usually missing and how you can replace them: Vitamin B9 (folate or folic acid). A lack of vitamin B9 can trigger anemia and make you weak, tired, and moody.
- You might also get headaches and have a hard time focusing.
- Folic acid is in foods like enriched bread, flour, cornmeal, pasta, rice, and breakfast cereals.
- Veggies, fruits, fruit juices, nuts, beans, and peas naturally have folate.
- Vitamin B6,
- Not getting enough of this vitamin can lead to anemia, depression, confusion, and a weak immune system.
Poultry, fish, non-citrus fruit, and starchy vegetables such as potatoes are good sources. Vitamin B1 (thiamine or thiamin). Too little could eventually cause serious learning and memory problems, a condition called Wernicke-Korsakoff’s syndrome. Eat beans, peas, lentils, pork, brown rice, and fortified foods like breakfast cereal,
- These nutrients also come in supplements.
- Talk to your doctor before taking any.
- Certain foods can help rebuild your brain’s ability to grow and evolve during recovery.
- These include: Carbohydrates.
- Your brain needs carbs to make the chemical messenger serotonin.
- That’s what evens out your moods, helps you sleep better, and soothes the urge for alcohol.
Experts suggest a diet with lots of complex carbs like whole grains, veggies, peas, and beans. Amino acids. Your brain needs amino acids to make dopamine, Without it, you can have strong cravings, mood swings, and hostile behavior. We get amino acids from protein in foods like meat, dairy products, and nuts, along with some grains and beans.
- Dietary fat,
- It eases inflammation and protects the thin layer that surrounds your brain cells, called the cell membrane.
- This gives neuroplasticity a boost.
- Canola, olive, safflower, sesame, and sunflower oils are good sources of healthy fats,
- Fatty acids.
- Omega-3 fatty acids found in shellfish and fatty fish like salmon also ease inflammation, while omega-6 fatty acids help with neurotransmitter activity.
You can find it in corn oil, safflower oil, and sunflower oil. Sugar, You may have a strong urge to eat sweets because they set off dopamine, the same chemical messenger triggered by some drugs, Ultra-processed foods. They’re likely cooked in unhealthy fats, like saturated and trans fats, and aren’t very nutritious.
Your health historyLack of nutrients due to organ damage or poor eating patterns Weight changesPossible eating disorders
A nutritionist can help get your eating back on track by coming up with a meal plan just for you. You’ll also learn how to:
Eat on a scheduleChoose nutrient-rich foods while avoiding those that have too much fat, salt, sugar, and caffeine Take vitamin and mineral supplements if needed
Tips to keep in mind during recovery and after include: Eat three meals a day. Early in recovery, your body will need to readjust to the feeling of hunger. At first, it may think hunger pangs are a desire to drink alcohol. That’s why it’s important to eat three meals a day plus snacks as your body heals.
Get into an eating routine.Eat when you’re hungry but not famished.Only eat until you’re satisfied.Keep a food journal.Avoid emotional eating,
Drink lots of water, Many times, people in recovery don’t get enough water, Try to drink around eight glasses each day.
What foods to avoid while detoxing?
Worst Foods for a Detox Diet – The worst foods in a detox diet are meat, dairy, wheat, alcohol and caffeine:
Meat slows down digestion, clogs up the bowels and helps bacteria to breed in your guts. Milk, cheese and other dairy products are acidic to the body, leading to poor cell function and the slowing down of detoxification. Wheat is harmful to the lining of the intestines and leads to poor nutrient intake. Wheat gluten irritates the gut and can cause bloating, indigestion and constipation. Alcohol is toxic to the liver and reduces levels of detoxifying minerals such as zinc and magnesium. Caffeine leads to increased levels of toxins in the body.
Processed, packaged and frozen foods are generally high in salt, sugar, bad fats and artificial ingredients. They should definitely be avoided on a detox diet.
A high salt diet is bad for blood pressure but also slows down cell functioning and the detox process. Sugar in the diet increases mood swings, brain fog and energy peaks and troughs. Sugar fights against the good bacteria in the gut leading to slower detoxification. Bad fats add to the strain on the liver and to your waistline. Many artificial ingredients are made from petrochemicals that are toxic to the liver and hard to break down and detoxify.
What should I take when I stop drinking?
Naltrexone (Vivitrol), acamprosate, and disulfiram are FDA approved to treat alcohol use disorder (AUD). Topiramate (Topamax) and gabapentin (Neurontin) are other medications that have been shown to help reduce drinking, but they’re not FDA approved for this use.
Why am I so hungry when I quit drinking?
Why am I not Losing Weight since Quitting Alcohol? – There are a number of reasons you might gain weight after you quit drinking. Perhaps the most common is using food to replace alcohol. This might be a case of substitution. For example, if you reach for a soda every time you would have previously reached for a beer, you’ll end up consuming a lot of calories, possibly more than before.
- Many people find food, especially sugary or fatty food gives them a dopamine boost and serves some of the same purposes alcohol used to.
- This can lead to a transfer addiction, from alcohol to food.
- Finally, heavy drinkers typically have chronically low blood sugar, which can persist into recovery.
- When your blood sugar is low, you instinctively try to correct it with sugary food.
This boosts your blood sugar temporarily, but then it tends to crash again, leading to a cycle of sugar boom and bust. It’s common for people recovering from alcohol use disorder to develop a raging sweet tooth and put on weight as a result. There are other ways quitting drinking may lead to weight gain too.
- Alcohol use disorder often occurs with depression, which typically reduces appetite.
- In the case of a dual diagnosis, depression and alcohol use should be treated together.
- As your depression symptoms decrease, you may find you have more of an appetite.
- Whereas the calories from your alcohol consumption used to be offset by eating little, you may now have the opposite problem of not drinking but having a much stronger appetite.
It’s also common for excessive drinking to damage your gastrointestinal tract, leading to poor absorption of nutrients and malnutrition. As your gut heals, you may gain weight from increased appetite and increased food absorption. Often, this is a good sign, especially if you were underweight before.
- Since excessive drinking can also go along with eating disorders, weight gain might be a sign of a healthier relationship with food.
- If you do find you’ve put on weight since you stopped drinking, it’s not an insurmountable problem.
- The first thing to do is watch your sugar intake.
- If you’ve been drinking a lot of soda, replace it with low-sugar substitutes, preferably water.
If you’ve been eating a lot of candy or pastries, replace them with healthier snacks like nuts or fruit. If you also follow a sensible diet of mostly whole foods, exercise regularly, and get plenty of sleep, you should be able to get back to a healthy weight pretty quickly.
Why am I so hungry after quitting alcohol?
You might gain weight. – Although most people lose weight after they quit drinking, some people gain weight. There are two main reasons for this. First, the vast majority of people with alcohol use disorders have chronically low blood sugar. Alcohol triggers an insulin response just like sugar, and the increased insulin levels keep your blood sugar low.
This persists even after you quit drinking, which means people recovering from alcohol use disorders often crave sweets. Eating too much sugary food is an easy way to gain weight. Also, some people experience post-acute-withdrawal syndrome, or PAWS, which is emotional numbness resulting from low dopamine levels.
Excessive eating is one way to temporarily boost those dopamine levels and make you feel better, but it can easily become a transfer addiction. It’s definitely something to watch out for after you quit drinking.
Are bananas good for detoxing?
The fiber in the bananas helps to keep bowels regular, which is also crucial in any attempt to lose weight (toxins need to exit the body every day). Bananas also help enhance the beneficial bacteria in our gut that keep our digestion strong.
Can you eat yogurt while detoxing?
5. Yogurt – Yogurt is full of probiotics, and they supply healthy bacteria to fortify the tract’s natural flora, helping digestion and boosting the body’s immune responses. Basically, yogurt brings good bacteria into your gut to kick-start digestion and help you get rid of toxins.
Can you eat eggs while detoxing?
Are you considering a detox plan but uncertain about including eggs in your dietary regimen? If you have wondered about this question for some time, you’ve come to the right place, as we have all the answers you sought. Eggs are essential as a primary quality protein source during a detox diet, whether you’re eating them as a boiled egg, half fry, or an omelet.
- Protein supplies your body with vital energy and aids in cellular repair.
- Additionally, eggs provide an array of essential nutrients and minerals, including choline, selenium, and vitamins A and B.
- Many still question their compatibility despite acknowledging the benefits of incorporating boiled eggs into your detox diet.
To address these concerns comprehensively, this article will delve into pertinent queries about egg consumption, the detoxification process, optimal food choices during detox, and foods to steer clear of.
Can I drink coffee while detoxing?
THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF CAFFEINE – I think we all know how caffeine consumption can significantly mess with your sleep. But the negative effects of caffeine go much further than that. While low to moderate caffeine consumption is generally safe, higher doses can increase your risk of developing certain health problems.
- Because caffeine crosses the placenta, women who are pregnant are also advised to reduce their caffeine consumption or avoid it completely.
- What’s more, recent studies show that some caffeine users become addicted to or dependent on caffeine.
- Because of this, the World Health Organization (WHO) and some health care professionals recognize caffeine dependence as a clinical disorder.
Caffeine (especially from coffee), can interfere with your body’s natural detoxification process. According to Dr. Mark Hyman, “Constituents in coffee can interfere with normal drug metabolism and detoxification in the liver, making it difficult to regulate the normal detoxification process in the liver.” Caffeine also increases your stress hormones.
How long does it take to get rid of alcohol toxins?
Typically, it can take as little as a few weeks up to as long as a few months. After the initial withdrawal process that peaks 24-72 hours after consumption, your body will need time to remove toxins and alcohol from your organs. Clearing out the liver takes about two weeks.
Do heavy drinkers lose their appetite?
The Link Between Alcohol and Loss of Appetite Heavy alcohol use can damage your health in a variety of ways. One common problem is a severe decline in your nutritional status. Due to loss of appetite and other factors, people affected by alcoholism tend to eat poorly. As a result, they often suffer from significant nutrition-related issues.
What I noticed when I stopped drinking?
Short-term benefits – It may sound obvious, but stopping drinking means you will no longer suffer from hangovers. The nausea, headaches, or tiredness you may have felt the morning after drinking could be replaced with improved mood as well as feelings of productivity. Hangovers – fact or fiction? Regular, heavy drinking interferes with chemicals in the brain that are vital for good mental health.2 So, while you might initially feel relaxed after a drink, alcohol can contribute to feelings of depression and anxiety.
- And stopping drinking could make feelings of stress easier to deal with.
- Boost your mental health with these tips If you stop drinking completely, one of the first things you notice should be improved energy levels, better sleep and finding it easier to wake up in the morning.
- Regular drinking can affect the quality of your sleep making you feel tired and sluggish during the day.
This is because drinking alcohol disrupts your sleep cycle.3 Although some people find drinking alcohol helps them get to sleep more quickly, the quality of sleep is affected. Alcohol disrupts the important Rapid Eye Movement (REM) stage of sleep, which can leave you feeling tired the next day – no matter how long you stay in bed.
- Improve your sleep with Drink Free Days Drinking less alcohol can have a positive impact on your appearance – and your skin in particular.
- Alcohol dehydrates your body, including the skin, and this happens every time you drink.
- This can cause your skin and eyes to look dull.
- But stopping drinking could help your skin’s hydration.
How alcohol affects your appearance If you’re overweight and regularly drink alcohol, you should find that your weight falls noticeably if you stop drinking.4 And not drinking at all will make it easier to maintain a healthy weight. For example, a typical pint of lager contains the same number of calories as a slice of pizza, and a large glass of wine the same as an ice cream sundae.
Do you crave sugar after quitting alcohol?
Quitting or cutting back on alcohol? Don’t be surprised if you develop a sweet tooth. Replacing alcohol with sugar is common—in fact, one study suggests up to 40 percent of people who stop drinking increase their sugar intake in the days after quitting.
What is the only way to successfully recover from alcoholism?
Therapy – Therapy is often a primary component of alcoholism recovery, regardless of whether a person has a mental illness. Therapy helps alcoholics identify and deal with stress that increase their urges to drink. In inpatient treatment, relaxation techniques may be taught and practiced in a group setting.
- In outpatient treatment, patients and therapists can discuss and practice stress management, and patients may be given homework.
- Treatment for alcohol addiction often takes a holistic approach,
- In addition to addressing a person’s drinking habits, thoughts, and behaviors, professionals promote exercise, proper nutrition, and healthy relationships.
Alcoholics Anonymous can also be an important component. Support groups provide helpful literature, a safe place to share concerns, and a network of people to turn to as needed.
What nutrients do alcoholics need?
Alcohol and Nutrition – Alcohol Alert No.22- 1993 National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism No.22 PH 346 October 1993 Alcohol and Nutrition Nutrition is a process that serves two purposes: to provide energy and to maintain body structure and function.
- Food supplies energy and provides the building blocks needed to replace worn or damaged cells and the nutritional components needed for body function.
- Alcoholics often eat poorly, limiting their supply of essential nutrients and affecting both energy supply and structure maintenance.
- Furthermore, alcohol interferes with the nutritional process by affecting digestion, storage, utilization, and excretion of nutrients (1).
Impairment of Nutrient Digestion and Utilization Once ingested, food must be digested (broken down into small components) so it is available for energy and maintenance of body structure and function. Digestion begins in the mouth and continues in the stomach and intestines, with help from the pancreas.
- The nutrients from digested food are absorbed from the intestines into the blood and carried to the liver.
- The liver prepares nutrients either for immediate use or for storage and future use.
- Alcohol inhibits the breakdown of nutrients into usable molecules by decreasing secretion of digestive enzymes from the pancreas (2).
Alcohol impairs nutrient absorption by damaging the cells lining the stomach and intestines and disabling transport of some nutrients into the blood (3). In addition, nutritional deficiencies themselves may lead to further absorption problems. For example, folate deficiency alters the cells lining the small intestine, which in turn impairs absorption of water and nutrients including glucose, sodium, and additional folate (3).
Even if nutrients are digested and absorbed, alcohol can prevent them from being fully utilized by altering their transport, storage, and excretion (4). Decreased liver stores of vitamins such as vitamin A (5), and increased excretion of nutrients such as fat, indicate impaired utilization of nutrients by alcoholics (3).
Alcohol and Energy Supply The three basic nutritional components found in food-carbohydrates, proteins, and fats-are used as energy after being converted to simpler products. Some alcoholics ingest as much as 50 percent of their total daily calories from alcohol, often neglecting important foods (3,6).
- Even when food intake is adequate, alcohol can impair the mechanisms by which the body controls blood glucose levels, resulting in either increased or decreased blood glucose (glucose is the body’s principal sugar) (7).
- In nondiabetic alcoholics, increased blood sugar, or hyperglycemia-caused by impaired insulin secretion-is usually temporary and without consequence.
Decreased blood sugar, or hypoglycemia, can cause serious injury even if this condition is short lived. Hypoglycemia can occur when a fasting or malnourished person consumes alcohol. When there is no food to supply energy, stored sugar is depleted, and the products of alcohol metabolism inhibit the formation of glucose from other compounds such as amino acids (7).
- As a result, alcohol causes the brain and other body tissue to be deprived of glucose needed for energy and function.
- Although alcohol is an energy source, how the body processes and uses the energy from alcohol is more complex than can be explained by a simple calorie conversion value (8).
- For example, alcohol provides an average of 20 percent of the calories in the diet of the upper third of drinking Americans, and we might expect many drinkers who consume such amounts to be obese.
Instead, national data indicate that, despite higher caloric intake, drinkers are no more obese than nondrinkers (9,10). Also, wh en alcohol is substituted for carbohydrates, calorie for calorie, subjects tend to lose weight, indicating that they derive less energy from alcohol than from food (summarized in 8).
- The mechanisms accounting for the apparent inefficiency in converting alcohol to energy are complex and incompletely understood (11), but several mechanisms have been proposed.
- For example, chronic drinking triggers an inefficient system of alcohol metabolism, the microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS) (1).
Much of the energy from MEOS-driven alcohol metabolism is lost as heat rather than used to supply the body with energy. Alcohol and the Maintenance of Cell Structure and Function Structure Because cells are made mostly of protein, an adequate protein diet is important for maintaining cell structure, especially if cells are being damaged.
Research indicates that alcohol affects protein nutrition by causing impaired digestion of proteins to amino acids, impaired processing of amino acids by the small intestine and liver, impaired synthesis of proteins from amino acids, and impaired protein secretion by the liver (3). Function Nutrients are essential for proper body function; proteins, vitamins, and minerals provide the tools that the body needs to perform properly.
Alcohol can disrupt body function by causing nutrient deficiencies and by usurping the machinery needed to metabolize nutrients. Vitamins. Vitamins are essential to maintaining growth and normal metabolism because they regulate many physiological processes.
- Chronic heavy drinking is associated with deficiencies in many vitamins because of decreased food ingestion and, in some cases, impaired absorption, metabolism, and utilization (1,12).
- For example, alcohol inhibits fat absorption and thereby impairs absorption of the vitamins A, E, and D that are normally absorbed along with dietary fats (12,13).
Vitamin A deficiency can be associated with night blindness, and vitamin D deficiency is associated with softening of the bones (6). Vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins, also deficient in some alcoholics, are all involved in wound healing and cell maintenance (14).
In particular, because vitamin K is necessary for blood clotting, deficiencies of that vitamin can cause delayed clotting and result in excess bleeding. Deficiencies of other vitamins involved in brain function can cause severe neurological damage. Minerals. Deficiencies of minerals such as calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc are common in alcoholics, although alcohol itself does not seem to affect the absorption of these minerals (15).
Rather, deficiencies seem to occur secondary to other alcohol-related problems: decreased calcium absorption due to fat malabsorption; magnesium deficiency due to decreased intake, increased urinary excretion, vomiting, and diarrhea (16); iron deficiency related to gastrointestinal bleeding (3,15); and zinc malabsorption or losses related to other nutrient deficiencies (17).
Mineral deficiencies can cause a variety of medical consequences from calcium-related bone disease to zinc-related night blindness and skin lesions. Alcohol, Malnutrition, and Medical Complications Liver Disease Although alcoholic liver damage is caused primarily by alcohol itself, poor nutrition may increase the risk of alcohol-related liver damage.
For example, nutrients normally found in the liver, such as carotenoids, which are the major sources of vitamin A, and vitamin E compounds, are known to be affected by alcohol consumption (18,19). Decreases in such nutrients may play some role in alcohol-related liver damage.
Pancreatitis Research suggests that malnutrition may increase the risk of developing alcoholic pancreatitis (20,21), but some research performed outside the United States links pancreatitis more closely with overeating (21). Preliminary research suggests that alcohol’s damaging effect on the pancreas may be exacerbated by a protein-deficient diet (22).
Brain Nutritional deficiencies can have severe and permanent effects on brain function. Specifically, thiamine deficiencies, often seen in alcoholics, can cause severe neurological problems such as impaired movement and memory loss seen in Wernicke/Korsakoff syndrome (23).
- Pregnancy Alcohol has direct toxic effects on fetal development, causing alcohol-related birth defects, including fetal alcohol syndrome.
- Alcohol itself is toxic to the fetus, but accompanying nutritional deficiency can affect fetal development, perhaps compounding the risk of developmental damage (24,25).
The nutritional needs during pregnancy are 10 to 30 percent greater than normal; food intake can increase by as much as 140 percent to cover the needs of both mother and fetus (24). Not only can nutritional deficiencies of an alcoholic mother adversely affect the nutrition of the fetus, but alcohol itself can also restrict nutrition flow to the fetus (24,25).
- Nutritional Status of Alcoholics Techniques for assessing nutritional status include taking body measurements such as weight, height, mass, and skin fold thickness to estimate fat reserves, and performing blood analysis to provide measurements of circulating proteins, vitamins, and minerals.
- These techniques tend to be imprecise, and for many nutrients, there is no clear “cut-off” point that would allow an accurate definition of deficiency (4).
As such, assessing the nutritional status of alcoholics is hindered by the limitations of the techniques. Dietary status may provide inferential information about the risk of developing nutritional deficiencies. Dietary status is assessed by taking patients’ dietary histories and evaluating the amount and types of food they are eating.
A threshold dose above which alcohol begins to have detrimental effects on nutrition is difficult to determine. In general, moderate drinkers (two drinks or less per day) seem to be at little risk for nutritional deficiencies. Various medical disorders begin to appear at greater levels. Research indicates that the majority of even the heaviest drinkers have few detectable nutritional deficiencies but that many alcoholics who are hospitalized for medical complications of alcoholism do experience severe malnutrition (1,12).
Because alcoholics tend to eat poorly-often eating less than the amounts of food necessary to provide sufficient carbohydrates, protein, fat, vitamins A and C, the B vitamins, and minerals such as calcium and iron (6,9,26)-a major concern is that alcohol’s effects on the digestion of food and utilization of nutrients may shift a mildly malnourished person toward severe malnutrition.
- Alcohol and Nutrition-A Commentary by NIAAA Director Enoch Gordis, M.D.
- The combination of an adequate diet and abstention from alcohol is the best way to treat malnourished alcoholic patients.
- Nutritional supplements have been used to replace nutrients deficient in malnourished alcoholics in an attempt to improve their overall health.
Dosages of nutritional supplements such as vitamin A that exceed normally prescribed levels may result in overdose. Although various nutritional approaches have been touted as “cures” for alcoholism, there is little evidence to support such claims. However, renewed research attention to the nutritional aspects of alcohol leaves open the possibility that a role for nutritional therapy in alcoholism treatment may yet be defined.
References (1) Lieber, C.S. The influence of alcohol on nutritional status. Nutrition Reviews 46(7):241-254, 1988. (2) Korsten, M.A. Alcoholism and pancreatitis: Does nutrition play a role? Alcohol Health & Research World 13(3):232-237, 1989. (3) Feinman, L. Absorption and utilization of nutrients in alcoholism.
Alcohol Health & Research World 13(3):207-210, 1989. (4) Thomson, A.D., and Pratt, O.E. Interaction of nutrients and alcohol: Absorption, transport, utilization, and metabolism. In: Watson, R.R., and Watzl, B., eds. Nutrition and Alcohol, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1992.
pp.75-99. (5) Sato, M., and Lieber, C.S. Hepatic vitamin A depletion after chronic ethanol consumption in baboons and rats. Journal of Nutrition 111:2015-2023, 1981. (6) Feinman, L., and Lieber, C.S. Nutrition: Medical problems of alcoholism. In: Lieber, C.S., ed. Medical and Nutritional Complications of Alcoholism: Mechanisms in Management,
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(14) Tortora, G.J., and Anagnostakos, N.P., eds. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology,5th ed. New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1987. (15) Marsano, L., and McClain, C.J. Effects of alcohol on electrolytes and minerals. Alcohol Health & Research World 13(3):255-260, 1989.
(16) Flink, E.B. Magnesium deficiency in alcoholism. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 10(6):590-594, 1986. (17) McClain, C.J. ; Antonow, D.R.; Cohen, D.A.; and Shedlofsky, S.I. Zinc metabolism in alcoholic liver disease. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 10(6):582-589, 1986. (18) Leo, M.A.
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Alcohol Health & Research World 13(3):219-227, 1989. (26) Hillers, V.N., and Massey, L.K. Interrelationships of moderate and high alcohol consumption with diet and health status. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 41(2):356-362, 1985. All material contained in the Alcohol Alert is in the public domain and may be used or reproduced without permission from NIAAA.
Citation of the source is appreciated. Copies of the Alcohol Alert are available free of charge from the Scientific Communications Branch, Office of Scientific Affairs, NIAAA, 5600 Fishers Lane, Room 16C-14, Rockville, MD 20857. Telephone: 301-443-3860.U.S.