alcohol, any of a class of organic compounds characterized by one or more hydroxyl (―OH) groups attached to a carbon atom of an alkyl group ( hydrocarbon chain). Alcohols may be considered as organic derivatives of water (H 2 O) in which one of the hydrogen atoms has been replaced by an alkyl group, typically represented by R in organic structures. Alcohols are among the most common organic compounds, They are used as sweeteners and in making perfumes, are valuable intermediates in the synthesis of other compounds, and are among the most abundantly produced organic chemicals in industry. Perhaps the two best-known alcohols are ethanol and methanol (or methyl alcohol).
Ethanol is used in toiletries, pharmaceuticals, and fuels, and it is used to sterilize hospital instruments. It is, moreover, the alcohol in alcoholic beverages, The anesthetic ether is also made from ethanol. Methanol is used as a solvent, as a raw material for the manufacture of formaldehyde and special resins, in special fuels, in antifreeze, and for cleaning metals.
Alcohols may be classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary, according to which carbon of the alkyl group is bonded to the hydroxyl group. Most alcohols are colourless liquids or solids at room temperature. Alcohols of low molecular weight are highly soluble in water; with increasing molecular weight, they become less soluble in water, and their boiling points, vapour pressures, densities, and viscosities increase.
- 1 What are the three classification of alcohols?
- 2 What are the 4 classifications of alcoholic beverages?
- 3 How is alcohol identified?
- 4 Why are there different types of alcohol?
- 5 What is 70% alcohol also known as?
- 6 What is the meaning and 3 types of alcohol?
What are the three classification of alcohols?
There are three main types of alcohol: methyl, isopropyl, and ethyl which are also known as primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols respectively. All are toxic. Human beings can consume the only ethyl, or grain, alcohol, but the others find use as sterilizing agents, or as fuels.
What is alcohol classification and description?
Is Alcohol Classified As A Drug? – Alcohol is a drug. It is classified as a Central Nervous System (CNS) depressant, which means that drinking alcohol slows down brain functioning, neural activity, and further reduces the functioning of various vital functions in the body.
Delayed reaction time Cognitive impairments Slurred speech Unsteady gait Poor coordination or lack of motor skills Distorted perceptions Lessened inhibitions Distorted judgment Sedation
Although alcohol is clinically classified as a depressant, it also is proven to have stimulant effects depending on the amount and rate at which the alcohol is consumed. In small quantities, alcohol is more likely to result in stimulatory effects. These stimulatory effects are often the effects many people seek when they drink alcohol. Some of the stimulatory effects of alcohol include:
Talkativeness Over-confidence Improvements in mood Increased blood pressure Increased heart rate Euphoria
When a person consumes larger quantities of alcohol, specifically more than the body is equipped to process, the drinker is more likely to experience the depressant effects of alcohol. Whether drinking beer, wine, or liquor, the amount used can drastically impact whether the user experiences depressant or stimulant effects.
- According to a study conducted by Behavioral Neurobiology of Alcohol Addiction, there is a higher risk of developing an alcohol use disorder, also referred to as alcoholism, in people who experience a greater stimulant response after consuming alcohol.
- Those who do not have a risk for alcohol dependence are more likely to experience a greater sedative response.
There are other genetic, environmental and familial factors that influence whether an individual will develop an alcohol use disorder, however, all of these factors may play a role in the development of alcoholism. Online Counseling for Alcohol Addiction Get professional help from an online addiction and mental health counselor from BetterHelp.
What are the two classifications of alcohol?
Similar to water, an alcohol can be pictured as having an s p 3 hybridized tetrahedral oxygen atom with nonbonding pairs of electrons occupying two of the four s p 3 hybrid orbitals. ( See chemical bonding for a discussion of hybrid orbitals.) Alkyl groups are generally bulkier than hydrogen atoms, however, so the R―O―H bond angle in alcohols is generally larger than the 104.5° H―O―H bond angle in water. One way of classifying alcohols is based on which carbon atom is bonded to the hydroxyl group, If this carbon is primary (1°, bonded to only one other carbon atom), the compound is a primary alcohol, A secondary alcohol has the hydroxyl group on a secondary (2°) carbon atom, which is bonded to two other carbon atoms.
How do you classify alcohol as 1 2 or 3?
Alcohols are classified as primary (1°), secondary (2°), or tertiary (3°) according to how many carbon groups are attached to the carbon bearing the OH group : The number of hydrogens on the carbon bearing the OH group does affect some chemical properties.
How many types of alcohol are there?
The 4 types of alcohol are isopropyl alcohol, methyl alcohol, undistilled ethanol, and distilled ethanol. Alcohol is the primary active ingredient in some of the most popular drinks on the planet. Beer, wine, spirits, and liquors all contain varying amounts of alcohol.
How many main types of alcohol are there?
Different Types Of Alcoholic Drinks By Alcohol Content – There are a wide variety of alcoholic beverages, which humans have been making and drinking for over 9,000 years. Alcohol beverages can be categorized into 3 main types: wine, spirits, and beer. Certain alcoholic drinks contain more alcohol than others and can cause drunkenness and alcohol poisoning more quickly and in smaller amounts.
What are the 4 classifications of alcoholic beverages?
Alcoholic beverages are classified as Fermented beverages, Distilled beverages and Compound beverages. Fermented beverages can be divided into two groups, wines and beers, broadly defined. Wines are fermented from various fruit juices containing fermentable sugars.
How is alcohol identified?
Identifying Alcohols Trial ends in Alcohols are organic compounds that are amongst the most recognizable and familiar, as they have wide-ranging applications and uses in everyday life. Alcohols are organic molecules containing a hydroxyl functional group connected to an alkyl or aryl group (ROH).
If the hydroxyl carbon only has a single R group, it is known as primary alcohol. If it has two R groups, it is a secondary alcohol, and if it has three R groups, it is a tertiary alcohol. Like many other organic compounds, alcohols can also be aromatic by containing a benzene ring. The simplest aromatic alcohol is phenol.
Identifying an alcohol in organic chemistry can be achieved by exploiting the different properties of the types of alcohols. While various instrumentation analysis methods, such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can be used, other qualitative tests can also be utilized.
What are the classification and reactions of alcohols?
An alcohol can be primary, secondary, or tertiary depending on how many hydrogen-carbon bonds there are on the carbon that is attached to the ‘OH’ group. Primary alcohols can be oxidized into aldehydes or carboxylic acids. Secondary alcohols can only be oxidized into ketones. Tertiary alcohols cannot be oxidized.
What is the description of alcohol?
How does alcohol affect the body? – Alcohol is a central nervous system depressant. This means that it is a drug that slows down brain activity. It can change your mood, behavior, and self-control. It can cause problems with memory and thinking clearly.
What are the 6 different forms of alcohol?
Brandy, Gin, Rum, Tequila, Vodka, and Whiskey Philippe TURPIN / Getty Images Among the many distilled spirits available, there are just six base liquors: brandy, gin, rum, tequila, vodka, and whiskey. While distilled using similar methods, each is unique in flavor, and there are distinct styles within each category.
- Wittelsback bernd / E+ / Getty Images Brandy is often enjoyed on its own. It’s popularly featured in several classic cocktails and tends to be used in drinks that include just a few ingredients. However, many modern brandy recipes break this mold and experiment with brandy in some unique flavor combinations.
- Distilled From : Brandy is distilled from fruit, While grapes are used for traditional brandy, the liquor can be distilled from other fruits such as apples, apricots, cherries, and peaches.
- Flavor Profile : Brandy tastes like fruity burnt wine with a pleasant oakiness.
- Aged : It varies by style, but brandy is typically aged in oak and often blended.
- Produced In : Brandy is distilled worldwide. Certain regions of the world make specific brandy styles, such as cognac, Armagnac, and pisco.
- Styles : Cognac, Armagnac, Spanish Brandy, Pisco, American Brandy, Grappa, Eau-de-vie, Flavored Brandy (non-grape brandy)
- Alcohol Content : Typically 40 percent alcohol by volume (ABV, 80 proof)
- Regulations : There are no distinct worldwide regulations for brandy, though some styles must be produced in certain regions using particular ingredients or methods.
- Ton Koene / age fotostock / Getty Images Gin’s dry profile makes it a perfect candidate for dry (non-sweet) cocktails, including many classics and martinis, It is a nice base for cocktails with just a few ingredients and pairs well with lighter mixers and fruits and naturally works well with herbs.
- Distilled From : Gin is distilled from neutral grains such as barley, corn, rye, and wheat and flavored with a variety of botanicals, which vary by brand.
- Flavor Profile : Gin is herbal and dry. The primary flavor that defines gin comes from juniper berries, which impart its signature “piney” aroma and taste. The older style of gins (e.g., genever, Old Tom, Plymouth) have a gentle sweetness.
- Aged : Typically unaged
- Produced In : Gin is produced worldwide. Historically, it is best-known as a product of Europe (particularly the Netherlands) and the United Kingdom.
- Styles : London Dry Gin, Plymouth Gin, Old Tom Gin, Genever, New American (or Modern-Styled) Gin
- Alcohol Content : Typically 40 to 47 percent ABV (80 to 94 proof)
- Regulations : There are no distinct worldwide regulations for gin though it is accepted that juniper berries must be included.
- Bloomberg Creative Photos / Getty Images Rum’s sweeter flavor makes it one of the more versatile spirits. It was among the first liquors to be mixed into drinks, so there are some excellent classic rum cocktails to choose from. It is the obvious base for tropical drinks and appears in several warm cocktails.
- Distilled From : Rum is distilled from some form of sugar. Molasses is very common, and some rum uses pure sugar cane.
- Flavor Profile : Rum has a sweet toasted sugar taste that varies by style and region.
- Aged : Light rum is typically not aged, and other rums are often aged in oak barrels to some extent. Due to climate, aging times vary greatly; warm climate rum requires less barrel time than rum from colder climates. Rum is also often blended.
- Produced In : The Caribbean and South America are best known for rum production, though it is made worldwide.
- Styles : Light Rum, Gold Rum, Dark Rum, Over-Proof Rum, Spiced Rum, Cachaça, Flavored Rum
- Alcohol Content : Typically 40 percent ABV (80 proof). Overproof rums can reach 75 percent ABV (150 proof).
- Regulations : There are no distinct worldwide regulations, but some rums must adhere to regional laws and traditions. For example, cachaça must be produced in Brazil.
- The Spruce / S&C Design Studios Tequila has a great flavor profile that mixes well into a variety of cocktails, There are, of course, the margaritas and frozen cocktails in which tequila is mixed with any fruit imaginable. It also makes a perfect base for spicy cocktails and is very popular for party shots.
- Distilled From : Tequila is distilled from the fermented juices of the agave plant.
- Flavor Profile : Most tequila has a vegetal, earthy flavor with semi-sweet and spicy tones.
- Aged : Blanco (or silver) tequila is un-aged. Reposado and añejo tequilas are aged, often in used whiskey (bourbon) oak barrels. Gold tequila is blended.
- Produced In : Tequila can only be made in Mexico. Agave spirits produced outside of Mexico cannot be labeled “tequila.”
- Styles : Blanco, Reposado, Añejo, Extra-Añejo, Gold (Other agave spirits are mezcal, pulque, sotol, raicila, and baconara, but these are not “tequilas.”)
- Alcohol Content : Typically 40 to 50 percent ABV (80 to 100 proof)
- Regulations : Tequila is the most tightly regulated liquor. The laws are defined under an Appellation of Origin, which was first adopted in 1978, and the industry is overseen by the Tequila Regulatory Council (CRT).
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- Matt Cardy / Stringer / Getty Images News Vodka’s neutral taste makes it the most versatile spirit available today. Vodka cocktails include almost every imaginable flavor profile, from sweet to savory, fruits to herbs, and spices to sparkling mixers. Martinis and shooters are popular vodka drinks as well.
- Distilled From : Vodka can be distilled from almost anything, and it can be a catch-all category for white spirits that don’t fit elsewhere. Neutral grains (rye, corn, wheat, etc.) and potatoes are the most common, though some vodkas are distilled from beets, grapes, and other bases.
- Flavor Profile : Vodka has a neutral alcohol/ethanol taste. This can varies greatly depending on the distillate base and added flavorings. Quite often, vodka is distinguished more by texture: oily vs. medicinal.
- Aged : Vodka is rarely aged.
- Produced In : Vodka is made everywhere and is traditionally known as a spirit from Russia and Poland.
- Styles : The base typically distinguishes clear vodka it was distilled from and/or the region it was produced. Flavored vodkas are a popular category.
- Alcohol Content : Typically 40 to 50 ABV (80 to 100 proof)
- Regulations : Vodka is open to interpretation, and there are no regulations on its production.
- Bloomberg Creative Photos / Getty Images Whiskey is another of the more versatile cocktail bases. With so many styles, there is the opportunity for great diversity in flavor profiles. It mixes well with other liquors to create complex drinks, and it pairs well with many fruits, particularly the darker fruits. Warm drinks are also very popular with whiskey.
- Distilled From : Whiskey is distilled from malted grains. It varies by style, but corn, rye, wheat, and barley are common. Many whiskies use a combination of a few grains in the mashbill.
- Flavor Profile : Roasted, malted grain with oak undertones should be expected in any whiskey. There are also distinct characteristics in each style.
- Aged : Whiskey is typically aged in charred oak. Some styles, such as bourbon, require new barrels while others use a mixture of new and previously used whiskey or wine barrels. Moonshine (also called white dog) is the primary exception to aging. Some whiskeys are blended, while others are single malts,
- Produced In : Whiskey is produced throughout the world, and the various styles are often defined by the country or region in which they’re produced.
- Styles : Bourbon, Canadian Whisky, Irish Whiskey, Japanese Whisky, Rye Whiskey, Scotch Whisky, Tennessee Whiskey, Blended Whiskey, Flavored Whiskey
- Alcohol Content : Typically 40 to 50 percent ABV (80 to 100 proof) or higher
- Regulations : Most whiskey styles have their own distinct regulations governed by the country of origin. Those simply labeled “whiskey” or “blended whiskey” generally do not fall into a regulated category.
The Spruce Eats uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
What Is A Standard Drink? National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. https://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohols-effects-health/overview-alcohol-consumption/what-standard-drink.
Why are there different types of alcohol?
How Many Types of Liquor Are There? – There are six primary liquors — whiskey, brandy, vodka, rum, gin and tequila. These beverages fall under the liquor category because they use a similar distilling method, but each has a distinct flavor that arises from using different ingredients and aging processes.
What is type 1 vs type 2 alcohol?
Type 2 alcoholism occurred predominantly in men, among whom age at onset was earlier than that among type 1 alcoholics; type 2 individuals were more likely than type 1 to have social and legal problems, and dependence was usually moderate.
Is alcohol a Class 1?
It is the alcohol that causes harm, not the beverage – Alcohol is a toxic, psychoactive, and dependence-producing substance and has been classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer decades ago – this is the highest risk group, which also includes asbestos, radiation and tobacco.
- Alcohol causes at least seven types of cancer, including the most common cancer types, such as bowel cancer and female breast cancer.
- Ethanol (alcohol) causes cancer through biological mechanisms as the compound breaks down in the body, which means that any beverage containing alcohol, regardless of its price and quality, poses a risk of developing cancer.
The risk of developing cancer increases substantially the more alcohol is consumed. However, latest available data indicate that half of all alcohol-attributable cancers in the WHO European Region are caused by “light” and “moderate” alcohol consumption – less than 1.5 litres of wine or less than 3.5 litres of beer or less than 450 millilitres of spirits per week.
What are the properties of alcohol?
Physical Properties of Alcohols – The physical properties of alcohol can be explained by the following points –
- Alcohols are colourless.
- They generally give a sweet smell except for glycerol and a few lower alcohols.
- They are flammable and produce a blue flame.
- They don’t produce any smoke while burning.
- They are generally liquid at room temperature. Although glycerol is a viscous liquid.
- Boiling Point of Alcohol – They generally have higher boiling points if we compare them with other hydrocarbons. For example, ethanol shows a boiling point of 78.29℃ while hexane shows a boiling point of 69℃. This is because of the presence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl groups of alcohols. The boiling point of alcohol increases with an increasing number of carbon atoms in organic alcoholic compounds.
- Alcohols work as suitable solvents for many organic compounds as organic compounds are insoluble in water,
- Alcohols are acidic in nature. They react with metals such as sodium, potassium etc. It is due to the polarity of the bond between a hydrogen atom and the oxygen atom of the hydroxyl group. Primary alcohols are more acidic than secondary and tertiary alcohols.
- Due to the polar -OH bond in alcohols, they are more soluble in water than other simple hydrocarbons. For example, methanol and ethanol are miscible in water.
What alcohol has 90% alcohol?
Indians are habituated with alcohol bottles with 42.8 percent alcohol by volume (ABV). In fact, 42.8 percent is the regulated ABV in India. But, few countries across the globe still allow production of strongest liquors with over 90% alcohol content – vodka, whiskeys and rums.
- Some of the brands have up to 96 per cent alcohol content.1.
- Cocoroco Made from sugarcane, Cocoroco is a product of Bolivia.
- It is one of the brands with highest alcohol content in the world – 96 percent alcohol by volume (ABV).
- It is sold in a tin.
- The brand is banned in a large number of countries worldwide because of high ABV.2.
Spirytus Rektyfikowany It is a product of Poland, and it comes with 95 to 96% ABV. It is made from premium ethyl alcohol produced from cereal. Spirytus is often used as a base for liqueurs and other infusions.3. Golden Grain Golden Grain is manufactured by American company Luxco.
- Golden Grain has 95 per cent ABV, and is produced from neutral spirit distilled from grain.
- It is colourless and odourless.4.
- Mariënburg rum It is White rum produced in Suriname, the smallest country in South America.
- The drink is made from sugarcane with a little spice, and contains 90 per cent ABV.
- The drink is produced by Suriname called Suriname Alcoholic Beverages.5.
River Antoine Royale Grenadian Rum Distilled in Grenada, River Antoine Royale Grenadian Rum has been bottled since 1975. The white rum is made from locally-grown, hand-cut sugarcane. The makers use the century-old tradition of pot stilling, and have 92 per cent alcohol content.
- The drink has strong notes of sweet sugarcane and grenadine flavours.
- The brand promotes itself as over-proof rum.6.
- Bruichladdich X4 Quadrupled Whiskey Bruichladdich X4 Quadrupled Whiskey is aged in oak casks using the quadruple distillation method.
- Made in Scotland, the distillery process of this single malt makes it one of the strongest and purest whiskies available out there.
Its alcohol content is 92 per cent ABV.7. Everclear Grain Everclear is distilled from 100 selected grains, and alcohol content is 95 per cent ABV. It has a neutral flavour profile and is colourless and odourless. The alcohol is used in the international market for creating various cocktails and blends. Northeast Now is a multi-app based hyper-regional bilingual news portal. Mail us at: [email protected] More by NE NOW NEWS
What is the scientific name for alcohol?
ethanol, also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, or alcohol, a member of a class of organic compounds that are given the general name alcohol s; its molecular formula is C 2 H 5 OH. Ethanol is an important industrial chemical; it is used as a solvent, in the synthesis of other organic chemicals, and as an additive to automotive gasoline (forming a mixture known as a gasohol ).
- Ethanol is also the intoxicating ingredient of many alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, and distilled spirit s.
- There are two main processes for the manufacture of ethanol: the fermentation of carbohydrates (the method used for alcoholic beverages) and the hydration of ethylene,
- Fermentation involves the transformation of carbohydrates to ethanol by growing yeast cells.
The chief raw materials fermented for the production of industrial alcohol are sugar crops such as beets and sugarcane and grain crops such as corn (maize). Hydration of ethylene is achieved by passing a mixture of ethylene and a large excess of steam at high temperature and pressure over an acidic catalyst, Britannica Quiz 44 Questions from Britannica’s Most Popular Health and Medicine Quizzes Ethanol produced either by fermentation or by synthesis is obtained as a dilute aqueous solution and must be concentrated by fractional distillation, Direct distillation can yield at best the constant-boiling-point mixture containing 95.6 percent by weight of ethanol.
Dehydration of the constant-boiling-point mixture yields anhydrous, or absolute, alcohol. Ethanol intended for industrial use is usually denatured (rendered unfit to drink), typically with methanol, benzene, or kerosene, Pure ethanol is a colourless flammable liquid (boiling point 78.5 °C ) with an agreeable ethereal odour and a burning taste.
Ethanol is toxic, affecting the central nervous system, Moderate amounts relax the muscles and produce an apparent stimulating effect by depressing the inhibitory activities of the brain, but larger amounts impair coordination and judgment, finally producing coma and death.
- It is an addictive drug for some persons, leading to the disease alcoholism,
- Ethanol is converted in the body first to acetaldehyde and then to carbon dioxide and water, at the rate of about half a fluid ounce, or 15 ml, per hour; this quantity corresponds to a dietary intake of about 100 calories.
The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Adam Augustyn,
What is pure alcohol called?
|Ball-and-stick model of ethanol||Space-filling model of ethanol|
Ethanol (abbr. EtOH ; also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol ) is an organic compound, It is an alcohol with the chemical formula C 2 H 6 O, Its formula can also be written as CH 3 −CH 2 −OH or C 2 H 5 OH (an ethyl group linked to a hydroxyl group ).
- Ethanol is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid with a characteristic wine -like odor and pungent taste.
- It is a psychoactive recreational drug, and the active ingredient in alcoholic drinks,
- Ethanol is naturally produced by the fermentation process of sugars by yeasts or via petrochemical processes such as ethylene hydration.
Historically it was used as a general anesthetic, and has modern medical applications as an antiseptic, disinfectant, solvent for some medications, and antidote for methanol poisoning and ethylene glycol poisoning, It is used as a chemical solvent and in the synthesis of organic compounds, and as a fuel source,
What is 70% alcohol also known as?
Therefore, 70 percent isopropyl alcohol is known as pharmaceutical alcohol. Water is also required to denature the proteins of the cell membrane and acts as a catalyst for the reaction.
What is the meaning and 3 types of alcohol?
What Is Alcohol? – Humans have been drinking alcohol for thousands of years. Alcohol is both a chemical and a psychoactive drug. In chemistry, an alcohol exists when a hydroxyl group, a pair of oxygen and hydrogen atoms, replaces the hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon.
- Alcohols bind with other atoms to create secondary alcohols.
- These secondary alcohols are the three types of alcohol that humans use every day: methanol, isopropanol, and ethanol.
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What is a 3 carbon primary alcohol?
Isobutyl alcohol is a primary (1º) alcohol, and is easily oxidized.2-Methyl-2-propanol, or tert-butanol, or tert-butyl alcohol, or t-butyl alcohol, is a three-carbon chain, with the OH group and a methyl group on the middle carbon.