Most newcomers face a problem of a bad smelling moonshine. Craftsmen have come up with a few simple methods which allow solving this problem in a quick and effective way without wasting too much time and efforts. These are the most effective tested methods. Six methods of getting rid of the unpleasant smell:
Pour 2-3 grams of potassium permanganate powder per 3 liters of the finished product. Wait for the precipitate to settle. To speed up the process, just close the jar, shake it several times, and put it for 10-15 minutes in a heated bath at a temperature of 50-70°C. Add 8-10 grams of baking soda per 1 liter of moonshine, stir, and infuse for 20-30 minutes. Then stir again and leave for 10-12 hours. After this, drain the top liquid layer and remove the sediment at the bottom. Soda is good for getting rid of fusel oils that cause an unpleasant smell. Infuse your moonshine with orris root for 12 days (100 grams of ground root per 3 liters of moonshine). This old recipe is of little use to urban dwellers, since finding orris violets in stores is nearly impossible. However, this method is very effective. Freeze the moonshine in a metallic keg or glass container, Water will freeze near the edges of the container along with harmful substances. After the water turns into ice, pour the liquid moonshine into another container. If necessary, repeat the process several times. This method is simple and cheap, as the only thing you need is a refrigerator. Re-distillation. Dilute the moonshine with water to 15-20% and run another distillation, separating the finished product into fractions. This method is laborious and time-consuming. These blemishes notwithstanding, it’s also the most effective. Clearing with activated carbon, For this method, you’ll need birch charcoal (BAU-A and BAU-LV). Technology: grind the charcoal and roll it in several layers of cheesecloth. Filter the moonshine through the obtained filter.
Clearing with Carbon Still, activated carbon remains the most simple and environmentally-friendly method of clearing moonshine. It removes unpleasant smells and harmful substances. Let’s find out how you can clear your moonshine with carbon at home. Thanks to its pores, carbon absorbs molecules of a certain size, so it’s very important to choose the right type of coal.
- For example, animal bone coal consists of micropores and can only absorb small molecules.
- Fusel oils and other harmful substances are composed of large molecules—that’s why this type of coal is not suitable in our case.
- Note: In order to clear the moonshine you’ll need activated carbon obtained by wood pyrolysis (decomposition brought about by high temperatures).
Most activated carbon tablets sold in pharmacies are made from animal bones with the use of binding additives (starch). Its ability to absorb harmful impurities is extremely low. Alternatively, there is a commercial product that I now use for clearing most of my Moonshine, which is the Still Spirits – EZ Filter System,
This is the simplest method of clearing Moonshine, the kit comes with everything you need, including purpose-built filtering containers, all you need to purchase ongoing is purpose-made carbon cartridges & washers, both of which are very cost-effective and save a lot of time in filtering your Moonshine.
Where to get Charcoal for Moonshine It can be purhcased from homebrewing shops. The most suitable are BAU-A and BAU-LV activated birch charcoal, and also KAU-A activated coconut coal, designed specifically for the liquor industry. Due to the presence of impurities, coal found in gas masks and other industrial devices should NOT be used! You can find carbon with large pores in many water filters. Birch charcoal is the best one Clearing Moonshine with carbon It’s pretty straightforward from here on: crush the carbon in a saucepan, then add to the moonshine (40-55%), 50 grams per liter. After this, infuse the mixture for a week in a sealed container.
- 1 How do you get rid of methanol in moonshine?
- 2 What neutralizes methanol?
- 3 What cancels out methanol?
- 4 What do they use to filter moonshine?
How do you get the bad taste out of moonshine?
Distill It Twice – Although it takes longer, distilling your moonshine twice will likely have a positive effect on its flavor. As long as you aren’t in a hurry to produce a batch of moonshine, run it through your still a second time. Doing so will help to filter out any impurities that may create an unpleasant flavor.
How do you get rid of methanol in moonshine?
With the dangers of methanol in mind, it would seem downright foolish to consume any spirit, let alone moonshine. However, there is a way to remove methanol from moonshine. In order to remove the harmful byproducts from your shine you need to perform what is called cuts and fractions during distillation.
How do you remove impurities from alcohol?
Filter the Alcohol a Few Extra Times – One of the main issues with cheaper liquor and spirits is that the alcohol in question is given a very short distillation time and filtration process – affecting its taste drastically. The amount of time something is filtered directly corresponds to whether or not a spirit has that harsh burning sensation after you swallow it.
What neutralizes methanol?
Fomepizole is used to inhibit methanol metabolism and is highly effective, but might not be readily available in many markets. If Fomepizole is not available, begin to give the person high doses of ethanol (i.e., whisky, vodka, etc.) immediately.
What cancels out methanol?
Methanol: Systemic Agent
CAS #: 67-56-1 RTECS #: PC1400000 UN #: 1230 (Guide 131)
Carbinol Methyl alcohol Wood alcohol
Methanol is a toxic alcohol that is used industrially as a solvent, pesticide, and alternative fuel source. It also occurs naturally in humans, animals, and plants. Foods such as fresh fruits and vegetables, fruit juices, fermented beverages, and diet soft drinks containing aspartame are the primary sources of methanol in the human body.
- Most methanol poisonings occur as a result of drinking beverages contaminated with methanol or from drinking methanol-containing products.
- In the industrial setting, inhalation of high concentrations of methanol vapor and absorption of methanol through the skin are as effective as the oral route in producing toxic effects.
The characteristic pungent (alcohol) odor of methanol does not provide sufficient warning of low levels of exposure.
Indoor Air: Methanol can be released into indoor air as a liquid spray (aerosol). Water: Methanol can be used to contaminate water. Food: Methanol may be used to contaminate food. Outdoor Air: Methanol can be released into outdoor air as a liquid spray (aerosol). Agricultural: If methanol is released into the air as a liquid spray (aerosol), it has the potential to contaminate agricultural products.
Methanol can be absorbed into the body by inhalation, ingestion, skin contact, or eye contact. Ingestion is an important route of exposure. First Responders should use a NIOSH-certified Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear (CBRN) Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) with a Level A protective suit when entering an area with an unknown contaminant or when entering an area where the concentration of the contaminant is unknown.
- Level A protection should be used until monitoring results confirm the contaminant and the concentration of the contaminant.
- NOTE: Safe use of protective clothing and equipment requires specific skills developed through training and experience.
- Select when the greatest level of skin, respiratory, and eye protection is required.
This is the maximum protection for workers in danger of exposure to unknown chemical hazards or levels above the IDLH or greater than the AEGL-2.
A NIOSH-certified CBRN full-face-piece SCBA operated in a pressure-demand mode or a pressure-demand supplied air hose respirator with an auxiliary escape bottle. A Totally-Encapsulating Chemical Protective (TECP) suit that provides protection against CBRN agents. Chemical-resistant gloves (outer). Chemical-resistant gloves (inner). Chemical-resistant boots with a steel toe and shank. Coveralls, long underwear, and a hard hat worn under the TECP suit are optional items.
Select when the highest level of respiratory protection is necessary but a lesser level of skin protection is required. This is the minimum protection for workers in danger of exposure to unknown chemical hazards or levels above the IDLH or greater than AEGL-2.
A NIOSH-certified CBRN full-face-piece SCBA operated in a pressure-demand mode or a pressure-demand supplied air hose respirator with an auxiliary escape bottle. A hooded chemical-resistant suit that provides protection against CBRN agents. Chemical-resistant gloves (outer). Chemical-resistant gloves (inner). Chemical-resistant boots with a steel toe and shank. Coveralls, long underwear, a hard hat worn under the chemical-resistant suit, and chemical-resistant disposable boot-covers worn over the chemical-resistant suit are optional items.
Select when the contaminant and concentration of the contaminant are known and the respiratory protection criteria factors for using Air Purifying Respirators (APR) or Powered Air Purifying Respirators (PAPR) are met. This level is appropriate when decontaminating patient/victims.
A NIOSH-certified CBRN tight-fitting APR with a canister-type gas mask or CBRN PAPR for air levels greater than AEGL-2. A NIOSH-certified CBRN PAPR with a loose-fitting face-piece, hood, or helmet and a filter or a combination organic vapor, acid gas, and particulate cartridge/filter combination or a continuous flow respirator for air levels greater than AEGL-1. A hooded chemical-resistant suit that provides protection against CBRN agents. Chemical-resistant gloves (outer). Chemical-resistant gloves (inner). Chemical-resistant boots with a steel toe and shank. Escape mask, face shield, coveralls, long underwear, a hard hat worn under the chemical-resistant suit, and chemical-resistant disposable boot-covers worn over the chemical-resistant suit are optional items.
Select when the contaminant and concentration of the contaminant are known and the concentration is below the appropriate occupational exposure limit or less than AEGL-1 for the stated duration times.
Limited to coveralls or other work clothes, boots, and gloves.
Methanol reacts violently with strong oxidants, causing a fire and explosion hazard.
Mixtures of methanol vapor and air are explosive. Lower explosive (flammable) limit in air (LEL), 6.0%; upper explosive (flammable) limit in air (UEL), 36%. Agent presents a vapor explosion and poison (toxic) hazard indoors, outdoors, or in sewers. Run-off to sewers may create an explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated.
Methanol is highly flammable. The agent will be easily ignited by heat, sparks, or flames. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive, and/or toxic gases. Vapors may travel to the source of ignition and flash back. Run-off to sewers may create a fire hazard. Caution: The agent has a very low flash point. Use of water spray when fighting fires may be inefficient. For small fires, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, water spray, or alcohol-resistant foam. For large fires, use water spray, fog, or alcohol-resistant foam. Move containers from the fire area if it is possible to do so without risk to personnel. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the agent. Use water spray or fog; do not use straight streams. For fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads, fight the fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after the fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tanks. Always stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from the area and let the fire burn. Run-off from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution. If the situation allows, control and properly dispose of run-off (effluent).
If a tank, rail car, or tank truck is involved in a fire, isolate it for 0.5 mi (800 m) in all directions; also consider initial evacuation for 0.5 mi (800 m) in all directions. This agent is not included in the DOT ERG 2004 Table of Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances. In the DOT ERG 2004 orange-bordered section of the guidebook, there are public safety recommendations to isolate a methanol (Guide 131) spill or leak area immediately for at least 150 ft (50 m) in all directions.
Methanol vapors may be heavier than air. They will spread along the ground and collect and stay in poorly-ventilated, low-lying, or confined areas (e.g., sewers, basements, and tanks). Hazardous concentrations may develop quickly in enclosed, poorly-ventilated, or low-lying areas. Keep out of these areas. Stay upwind. Liquid agent is lighter than water.
Health: 1 Flammability: 3 Reactivity: 0 Special:
OSHA: 91 NIOSH: 2000, 3800
References are provided for the convenience of the reader and do not imply endorsement by NIOSH.
AIR MATRIX Allen TM, Falconer TM, Cisper ME, Borgerding AJ, Wilkerson CW Jr., Real-time analysis of methanol in air and water by membrane introduction mass spectrometry. Anal Chem 73(20):4830-4835.De Paula PP, Santos E, De Freitas FT, De Andrade JB, Determination of methanol and ethanol by gas chromatography following air sampling onto florisil cartridges and their concentrations at urban sites in the three largest cities in Brazil. Talanta 49(2):245-252.Leibrock E, Slemr J, Method for measurement of volatile oxygenated hydrocarbons in ambient air. Atmos Environ 31(20):3329-3339. Marley NA, Gaffney JS, A comparison of flame ionization and ozone chemiluminescence for the determination of atmospheric hydrocarbons. Atmos Environ 32(8):1435-1444. NIOSH, NMAM Method 2000 Methanol. In: NIOSH Manual of analytical methods.4th ed. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. OSHA, Methyl Alcohol Method 91. Salt Lake City, UT.U.S. Department of Labor, Organic Methods Evaluation Branch, OSHA Salt Lake Technical Center. Qin T, Xu X, Polak T, Pacakova V, Stulik K, Jech L, A simple method for the trace determination of methanol, ethanol, acetone, and pentane in human breath and in the ambient air by preconcentration on solid sorbents followed by gas chromatography. Talanta 44(9):1683-1690. Reichert J, Coerdt W, Ache HJ, Development of a surface acoustic wave sensor array for the detection of methanol in fuel vapours. Sens Actuators B: Chem 13(1-3):293-296. Tyras H, Spectrophotometric determination of methyl alcohol in the atmosphere. Z Gesamte Hyg 35(2):96-97. OTHER No references were identified for this sampling matrix for this agent. SOIL MATRIX Poole SK, Poole CF, Chromatographic models for the sorption of neutral organic compounds by soil from water and air. J Chromatogr A 845(1-2):381-400. SURFACES Almuzara C, Cos O, Baeza M, Gabriel D, Valero F, Methanol determination in Pichia pastoris cultures by flow injection analysis. Biotechnol Lett 24(5):413-417. WATER Blanco M, Coello J, Iturriaga H, Maspoch S, Porcel M, Simultaneous enzymatic spectrophotometric determination of ethanol and methanol by use of artificial neural networks for calibration. Anal Chim Acta 398(1):83-92.Martinezsegura G, Rivera MI, Garcia LA, Methanol analysis by gas-chromatography–comparative-study using 3 different columns. J Agric Univ Puerto Rico 69(2):135-144.Pettersson J, Roeraade J, Quantitative accuracy in the gas chromatographic analysis of solvent mixtures. J Chromatogr A 985(1-2):21-27. Wilson LA, Ding JH, Woods AE, Gas-chromatographic determination and pattern-recognition analysis of methanol and fusel oil concentrations in whiskeys. J Assoc Off Anal Chem 74(2):248-256.
Adverse health effects from methanol poisoning may not become apparent until after an asymptomatic period of 1 to 72 hours. Methanol’s toxicity is due to its metabolic products. The by-products of methanol metabolism cause an accumulation of acid in the blood (metabolic acidosis), blindness, and death. Initial adverse health effects due to methanol poisoning include drowsiness, a reduced level of consciousness (CNS depression), confusion, headache, dizziness, and the inability to coordinate muscle movement (ataxia). Other adverse health effects may include nausea, vomiting (emesis), and heart and respiratory (cardiopulmonary) failure. Prognosis is poor in patient/victims with coma or seizure and severe metabolic acidosis (pH <7). Early on after methanol exposure, there may be a relative absence of adverse health effects. This does not imply insignificant toxicity. Methanol toxicity worsens as the degree of metabolic acidosis increases, and thus, becomes more severe as the time between exposure and treatment increases.
Irritation, redness, and pain.
Ingestion of methanol may cause a wide range of adverse health effects:
Neurological: headache, dizziness, agitation, acute mania, amnesia, decreased level of consciousness including coma, and seizure. Gastrointestinal: Nausea, vomiting, lack of an appetite (anorexia), severe abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding (hemorrhage), diarrhea, liver function abnormalities, and inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis). Ophthalmologic: visual disturbances, blurred vision, sensitivity to light (photophobia), visual hallucinations (misty vision, skin over the eyes, snowstorm, dancing spots, flashes), partial to total loss of vision, and rarely eye pain. Visual examination may reveal abnormal findings. Fixed dilated pupils are a sign of severe exposure to methanol. Other: Electrolyte imbalances. Kidney failure, blood in the urine (hematuria), and muscle death at the cellular level (rhabdomyolysis) have been reported in severe poisonings. Fatal cases often present with fast heart rate (tachycardia) or slow heart rate (bradycardia) and an increased rate of respiration. Low blood pressure (hypotension) and respiratory arrest occur when death is imminent.
Irritation. See Ingestion Exposure.
The purpose of decontamination is to make an individual and/or their equipment safe by physically removing toxic substances quickly and effectively. Care should be taken during decontamination, because absorbed agent can be released from clothing and skin as a gas.
Position the decontamination corridor upwind and uphill of the hot zone. The warm zone should include two decontamination corridors. One decontamination corridor is used to enter the warm zone and the other for exiting the warm zone into the cold zone. The decontamination zone for exiting should be upwind and uphill from the zone used to enter. Decontamination area workers should wear appropriate PPE. See the PPE section of this card for detailed information. A solution of detergent and water (which should have a pH value of at least 8 but should not exceed a pH value of 10.5) should be available for use in decontamination procedures. Soft brushes should be available to remove contamination from the PPE. Labeled, durable 6-mil polyethylene bags should be available for disposal of contaminated PPE.
The following methods can be used to decontaminate an individual:
Decontamination of First Responder:
Begin washing PPE of the first responder using soap and water solution and a soft brush. Always move in a downward motion (from head to toe). Make sure to get into all areas, especially folds in the clothing. Wash and rinse (using cold or warm water) until the contaminant is thoroughly removed. Remove PPE by rolling downward (from head to toe) and avoid pulling PPE off over the head. Remove the SCBA after other PPE has been removed. Place all PPE in labeled durable 6-mil polyethylene bags.
Decontamination of Patient/Victim:
Remove the patient/victim from the contaminated area and into the decontamination corridor. Remove all clothing (at least down to their undergarments) and place the clothing in a labeled durable 6-mil polyethylene bag. Thoroughly wash and rinse (using cold or warm water) the contaminated skin of the patient/victim using a soap and water solution. Be careful not to break the patient/victim’s skin during the decontamination process, and cover all open wounds. Cover the patient/victim to prevent shock and loss of body heat. Move the patient/victim to an area where emergency medical treatment can be provided.
Initial treatment is primarily supportive of respiratory and cardiovascular function. The goal of treatment is to either prevent the conversion of methanol to toxic metabolites or to rapidly remove the toxic metabolites and correct metabolic and fluid abnormalities.
Immediately remove the patient/victim from the source of exposure. Immediately wash eyes with large amounts of tepid water for at least 15 minutes. Seek medical attention immediately.
Immediately remove the patient/victim from the source of exposure. Ensure that the patient/victim has an unobstructed airway. Do not induce vomiting (emesis). Seek medical attention immediately.
Immediately remove the patient/victim from the source of exposure. Evaluate respiratory function and pulse. Ensure that the patient/victim has an unobstructed airway. If shortness of breath occurs or breathing is difficult (dyspnea), administer oxygen. Assist ventilation as required. Always use a barrier or bag-valve-mask device. If breathing has ceased (apnea), provide artificial respiration. Seek medical attention immediately.
Immediately remove the patient/victim from the source of exposure. See the Decontamination section for patient/victim decontamination procedures. Seek medical attention immediately.
Antidotes fomepizole or ethanol should be administered intravenously as soon as possible to block the conversion of methanol to formic acid and prevent acidosis. Fomepizole is preferred as its efficacy and safety have been demonstrated, and its therapeutic dose is more easily maintained.
- Once the patient/victim has become acidotic, administration of fomepizole or ethanol may not provide much benefit, but they may be administered at the discretion of the physician in charge.
- Hemodialysis is the most effective form of treatment for an acidotic patient/victim.
- Folinic acid (leucovorin) should also be administered intravenously to increase the rate at which formate is metabolized into less toxic chemicals.
The most common permanent adverse health effects following severe methanol poisoning are damage to or death of the nerve leading from the eye to the brain (optic neuropathy or atrophy), resulting in blindness; disease caused by damage to a particular region of the brain, resulting in difficulty walking and moving properly (Parkinsonism); damage to the brain caused by exposure to toxins, resulting in abnormal thought (encephalopathy); and damage to the peripheral nervous system.
- Methanol is not suspected to be a carcinogen.
- Chronic or repeated exposure to methanol is suspected to be a developmental toxicity risk.
- It is unknown whether chronic or repeated exposure to methanol is a reproductive toxicity risk.
- Methanol may cause birth defects of the central nervous system in humans.
Chronic poisoning from repeated exposure to methanol vapor may produce inflammation of the eye (conjunctivitis), recurrent headaches, giddiness, insomnia, stomach disturbances, and visual failure. The most noted health consequences of longer-term exposure to lower levels of methanol are a broad range of effects on the eye.
Consult with the Incident Commander regarding the agent dispersed, dissemination method, level of PPE required, location, geographic complications (if any), and the approximate number of remains. Coordinate responsibilities and prepare to enter the scene as part of the evaluation team along with the FBI HazMat Technician, local law enforcement evidence technician, and other relevant personnel. Begin tracking remains using waterproof tags.
Wear PPE until all remains are deemed free of contamination. Establish a preliminary (holding) morgue. Gather evidence, and place it in a clearly labeled impervious container. Hand any evidence over to the FBI. Remove and tag personal effects. Perform a thorough external evaluation and a preliminary identification check. See the Decontamination section for decontamination procedures. Decontaminate remains before they are removed from the incident site.
See Guidelines for Mass Fatality Management During Terrorist Incidents Involving Chemical Agents, U.S. Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command (SBCCOM), November, 2001 for detailed recommendations.
NIOSH REL :
STEL (skin): 250 ppm (325 mg/m 3 ) TWA (skin): 200 ppm (260 mg/m 3 )
OSHA PEL :
TWA (8-hour): 200 ppm (260 mg/m 3 )
ACGIH TLV :
STEL (skin): 250 ppm TLV (skin): 200 ppm
NIOSH IDLH : 6,000 ppm
DOE TEEL :
TEEL-0: 250 mg/m 3 TEEL-1: 694 mg/m 3 TEEL-2: 2,750 mg/m 3 TEEL-3: 9,300 mg/m 3
AIHA ERPG :
ERPG-1: 200 ppm ERPG-2: 1,000 ppm ERPG-3: 5,000 ppm
|10 min||30 min||60 min||4 hr||8 hr|
|AEGL 1 (discomfort, non-disabling) – ppm||670 ppm||670 ppm||530 ppm||340 ppm||270 ppm|
|AEGL 2 (irreversible or other serious, long-lasting effects or impaired ability to escape) – ppm||11,000 ppm*||4,000 ppm||2,100 ppm||730 ppm||520 ppm|
|AEGL 3 (life-threatening effects or death) – ppm||**||14,000 ppm*||7,200 ppm*||2,400 ppm||1,600 ppm|
Lower Explosion Limit (LEL) = 55,000 ppm * = > 10% LEL; ** = > 50% LEL AEGL 3 – 10 min = ** 40,000 ppm For values denoted as * safety consideration against the hazard(s) of explosion(s) must be taken into account For values denoted as ** extreme safey considerations against the hazard(s) of explosion(s) must be taken into account Level of Distinct Order Awareness (LOA) = 8.9 ppm IMPORTANT NOTE: Interim AEGLs are established following review and consideration by the National Advisory Committee for AEGLs (NAC/AEGL) of public comments on Proposed AEGLs. Interim AEGLs are available for use by organizations while awaiting NRC/NAS peer review and publication of Final AEGLs. Changes to Interim values and Technical Support Documents may occur prior to publication of Final AEGL values. In some cases, revised Interim values may be posted on this Web site, but the revised Interim Technical Support Document for the chemical may be subject to change. (Further information is available through ). The following methods can be used to decontaminate the environment/spillage disposal:
Do not touch or walk through the spilled agent if at all possible. However, if you must, personnel should wear the appropriate PPE during environmental decontamination. See the PPE section of this card for detailed information. Keep combustibles (e.g., wood, paper, and oil) away from the spilled agent. Use water spray to reduce vapors or divert vapor cloud drift. Avoid allowing water runoff to contact the spilled agent. Do not direct water at the spill or the source of the leak. Stop the leak if it is possible to do so without risk to personnel, and turn leaking containers so that gas rather than liquid escapes. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements, or confined areas. Isolate the area until gas has dispersed. Ventilate the area.
Agents can seep into the crevices of equipment making it dangerous to handle. The following methods can be used to decontaminate equipment:
Chemical Formula: CH 3 OH Aqueous solubility: Soluble Boiling Point: 148.5°F (64.7°C) Density: Liquid: 0.79 g/cm 3 at 68°F/39°F (20°C/4°C) Vapor: 1.11 (air = 1) Flammability: Highly flammable Flashpoint: 54°F (12°C)
Ionization potential: 10.84 eV Log K benzene-water : Not established/determined Log K ow (estimated): -0.77 Melting Point: -144°F (-97.8°C) Molecular Mass: 32.04
Soluble In: Miscible with most organic solvents. Specific Gravity: 0.79 Vapor Pressure: 96 mm Hg at 68°F (20°C) 127 mm Hg at 77°F (25°C) Volatility: Not established/determined
Shipping Name: Methanol Identification Number: 1230 (Guide 131) Hazardous Class or Division: 3 Subsidiary Hazardous Class or Division: 6.1 Label: Flammable Liquid Poison (Toxic) Placard Image:
Alcohol, methyl Alcool methylique (French) Alcool metilico (Italian) Bieleski’s solution Coat-B1400 Colonial spirit(s) Columbian spirit(s) Eureka Products Criosine Disinfectant Eureka Products, Criosine Freers Elm Arrester Ideal Concentrated Wood Preservative Metanol (Spanish) Metanolo (Italian)
Methyl hydrate Methyl hydroxide Methylalkohol (German) Methylol Metylowy alkohol (Polish) Monohydroxymethane Pyroligneous spirit Pyroxylic spirit(s) Surflo-B17 Wilbur-Ellis Smut-Guard Wood naphtha Wood spirit X-Cide 402 Industrial Bactericide
In the event of a poison emergency, call the poison center immediately at 1-800-222-1222. If the person who is poisoned cannot wake up, has a hard time breathing, or has convulsions, call 911 emergency services. For information on who to contact in an emergency, see the CDC website at or call the CDC public response hotline at (888) 246-2675 (English), (888) 246-2857 (Español), or (866) 874-2646 (TTY). The user should verify compliance of the cards with the relevant STATE or TERRITORY legislation before use. NIOSH, CDC 2003. : Methanol: Systemic Agent
How do you remove sulfur from alcohol?
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS This Application claims the benefit of priority to pending U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No.60/789,470, filed on Apr.5, 2006, and to pending U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No.60/855,017, filed on Oct.27, 2006, entitled “Method for Removing Sulfur Compounds from an Alcohol Stream” and having the same named inventors.U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. Nos.60/789,470 and 60/855,017 are incorporated by reference into this Application as if fully written herein. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention Ethanol is widely used in industry as a solvent in the synthesis of paints, pharmaceuticals and intermediaries, cosmetics, perfumes, and other products. Anhydrous ethanol (that is, dewatered ethanol) is also an important component in alternative fuels. Alternative fuels may be created through combination of ethanol with, for example gasoline and other fossil fuel distillate components. These alternative fuels may include, for example, E10 gasohol or E85 gasohol (having 10% and 85% anhydrous ethanol, respectively), though of course the percentage of ethanol may vary to suit a desired application. Anhydrous ethanol can also be used as an important oxygenic additive in lead-free gasoline. Because of the complexity of modern applications of ethanol, methanol, and other alcohol streams, it is desirable to provide such streams in as high a purity as possible. One common impurity in alcohol streams is sulfur. This sulfur may be present, for instance, as sulfate anions and compounds, sulfite anions and compounds, or sulfur dioxide. Those skilled in the art will recognize that other sulfur compounds may be present in alcohol streams. Sulfur compounds may be present in ethanol streams for a variety of reasons. For example, they may be present due to their initial presence in the raw materials used to create ethanol streams and/or due to introduction of sulfur compounds during processing to obtain ethanol. Ethanol streams produced from corn by a wet-milling process may include, for example, at least about 8 ppm (that is, about 8 mg/liter) of sulfur as sulfur dioxide. Ethanol streams produced from corn by a dry-milling process may include, for example, at least about 2 ppm of sulfur as sulfur dioxide. It would be desirable to provide a method, apparatus, and system for reduction of sulfur compounds in ethanol, methanol, and other alcohol streams. BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Described herein are novel processes, apparatus, and systems for purifying alcohol streams by reducing the concentration of sulfur compounds in those alcohol streams. The invention is exemplified by reduction of sulfur dioxide, sulfate ion, and/or sulfite ion in an ethanol stream, but is applicable for the removal of other sulfur compounds from other alcohol streams. In one embodiment, short-chain alcohol streams are purified. An embodiment includes a method of removing at least one sulfur compound from an alcohol. This method may include contacting an amount of alcohol including at least one sulfur compound with at least one material selected from an anion ion exchange resin, an aluminum silicate clay, alumina silicate (alumina), activated carbon, smectite clay, barium salt and mixtures of those things, waiting for a time sufficient to allow the material to reduce the amount of sulfur compound to a predetermined amount, and recovering alcohol including at least one sulfur compound in an amount no greater than the predetermined amount. In another embodiment, the invention includes a system for producing reduced sulfur ethanol. Such a system may include a grain processing facility configured to add a sulfur containing compound to a grain feed stream, and/or to form a grain feed stream inherently containing at least one sulfur containing compound; a grain fermenting facility configured to ferment ethanol from a sulfur containing feed stream to form a fermentation broth; an enrichment facility configured to obtain an enriched ethanol fraction from a fermentation broth, wherein the enriched ethanol fraction contains at least 4 ppm of sulfur containing compounds; and a sulfur removal facility configured to remove at least a portion of sulfur containing compound from the enriched ethanol fraction, where the sulfur removal facility is configured with an apparatus to remove at least a portion of sulfur containing compound from the enriched ethanol. The removal may be accomplished by other methods disclosed in this application. In a still further embodiment, a sulfur compound reducing material is provided in a slurry, continuous flow bed, countercurrent extractor, moving bed, stationery bed, automated ion exchange system, an ion exchange column, impregnated filter, or combination thereof. In a further embodiment, the amount of sulfur compounds in an alcohol stream may be reduced to below 4 ppm, 3 ppm, 2 ppm, 1 ppm, 0.5 ppm, or 0.1 ppm. In a still further embodiment of the invention, the alcohol stream includes more than 4 ppm of sulfur compounds prior to treatment. In another embodiment of the invention, sulfur compounds for removal are selected from sulfur dioxide, sulfate anion, sulfite anion, and mixtures thereof. In a further embodiment, a material used for sulfur compound removal is an aluminum silicate clay. Aluminum silicate clay may be, for example, but is not limited to, a montmorillonite clay, a bentonite clay, a zeolite clay, or a zeolite-like clay. A bentonite clay may be a calcium bentonite clay. In a further embodiment, a material used for sulfur compound removal is an ion exchange resin. In one embodiment, an ion exchange resin is macro porous and is a weak base anion exchanger, a strong base type 1 anion exchanger, or a strong base type 2 anion exchanger. An ion exchange resin may be, for example, but is not limited to, Mitsubishi WA30, Mitsubishi DCA11, Lewatit S4228, Lewatit S4528, Amberlyst A26, Amberlyst A21, Lewatit Mono+MP500, Dowex 22, Dowex 66, Mitsubishi PA412, and Mitsubishi PA312. In a further embodiment, a material used for sulfur compound removal is a barium salt. A barium salt may be, for example, but is not limited to, barium hydroxide, barium carbonate, or mixtures of the two. Barium salts for use in the invention may have greater solubility in alcohol (for example, in ethanol) than barium sulfate has in ethanol. Alcohols for inclusion in purification processes of the invention may include, for example, ethanol, methanol, or mixtures thereof. In a preferred embodiment, the alcohol is ethanol. A further embodiment includes an ethanol comprising less than about 4 ppm sulfur compounds. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG.1 shows a typical corn dry grind ethanol process including sulfur removal, as encompassed in an embodiment of the invention. FIG.2 shows a typical flow diagram of a wet milling process for production of starch. Areas of potential introduction of sulfur compounds are shown. FIG.3 shows a flow diagram of a typical ethanol production process using starch from a wet mill. Proposed areas of possible sulfur removal are shown. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Unless otherwise indicated, the terms in this application shall have their art-accepted meanings. In an effort to aid understanding of the invention, a number of terms are defined below. As used herein, the term “smectite clay” means a clay having a three-layer crystalline structure of one alumina and two silica layers. Smectite clays are characterized by hydrational swelling and colloidal characteristics. As used herein, the term “bentonite clay” means a colloidal clay composed primarily of montmorillonte but also including other smectite clays. Both sodium bentonite and calcium bentonite exist. Sodium bentonite has a high swelling capacity in water, and calcium bentonite does not. As used herein, the term “zeolite” means a hydrated silicate of aluminum and either sodium or calcium or both, including framework silicates with interlocking tetrahedrons of SiO 4 and AlO 4, Zeolites for use in the invention may be natural or artificial. Zeolites may be natrolites, heulandites, or Chabazites. “Zeolite-like materials” include minerals and compounds with structures and/or properties similar to those of zeolites. Zeolite-like materials include phosphates and silicates. Representative natural phosphates include kehoeite, pahasapaite and tiptopite. Representative natural silicates include hsianghualite, lovdarite, viseite, partheite, prehnite, roggianite, apophyllite, gyrolite, maricopaite, okenite, tacharanite and tobermorite. Zeolites are typically framework silicates including interlocking tetrahedrons of SiO 4 and AlO 4, Generally the ratio (Si+Al)/O equals ½. The alumino-silicate structure is negatively charged and attracts the positive cations that reside within. Unlike most other tectosilicates, zeolites have large vacant spaces or cages in their structures that allow space for large cations. These large cations may include, for example, but are not limited to, sodium, potassium, barium, and calcium, as well as relatively large molecules and cation groups including water, ammonia, carbonate ions, and nitrate ions. In some zeolites the spaces are interconnected and form long, wide channels of varying sizes (where size depends on the mineral structure). These channels allow the easy movement of the resident ions and molecules into and out of the structure. Zeolites are typically characterized by their ability to lose and absorb water without damage to their crystal structures. The large channels are one explanation for the consistent low specific gravity of zeolites. As used herein, the terms “montmorillonite clay” and “montmorillonite” mean a type of clay having an approximate composition:, As stated in Hawley’s Condensed Chemical Dictionary (11th Ed., 1987) (Sax and Lewis, eds.), incorporated by reference herein, montmorillonite is a major component of bentonite. As used herein, the term “short chain alcohol” means an alcohol having one to six carbons in its longest carbon chain. The present teachings encompass providing an alcohol stream that includes one or more sulfur compounds. Sulfur compounds include, for example, but are not limited to, elemental sulfur, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur trioxide, and compounds and ionic species containing sulfate, sulfite, and/or sulfide. Alcohol streams are preferably short-chain alcohol streams. Ethanol streams and methanol streams are particularly preferred. Sulfur removal from an alcohol as taught herein may be performed before or after dewatering of that alcohol. Sulfur removal after dewatering is preferred. Provided sulfur-bearing alcohol streams may be treated to reduce the amount of sulfur that they include by the methods described herein. In one aspect, a sulfur-bearing alcohol stream is contacted with an ion exchange resin over a period of time. An ion exchange resin may be, for example, but is not limited to, macro porous and a weak base anion exchanger, a strong base type 1 anion exchanger, or a strong base type 2 anion exchanger. Gel type resins are less preferred. Exemplary resins for use in the invention include, for example, but are not limited to, Mitsubishi WA30, Mitsubishi DCA11, Lewatit S4228, Lewatit S4528, Amberlyst A26 (Rohm and Haas), Amberlyst A21 (Rohm and Haas), Lewatit Mono+MP500, Dowex 22 (Dow Chemical Company), Dowex 66 (Dow Chemical Company), Mitsubishi PA412, and Mitsubishi PA312. Those skilled in the art will recognize that gel resins typically include lower cross-linked dense beads, which have high capacity and high breaking weights. Others recognize gel-type resins that have no permanent pore structures. Their pores are generally considered to be quite small, usually not greater than 30 Angstroms, and are referred to as gelular pores or molecular pores. The pore structures are determined by the distance between the polymer chains and crosslinks, which vary with the crosslink level of the polymer, the polarity of the solvent, and the operating conditions used with the resin. Gel type resins are typically translucent. Those skilled in the art will further recognize that macroporous resins are typically lower in capacity than gel resins, but have a higher resistance to fouling and are more resistant to osmotic shock attrition. Macroporous resins are made of two continuous phases, a continuous pore phase and a continuous gel polymeric phase. The polymeric phase is typically structurally composed of small spherical microgel particles agglomerated together to form clusters. The clusters are, in turn, fastened together at the interfaces, forming interconnecting pores. The increased surface area arises from the exposed surface of the microgel, glued together into clusters. Macroreticular ion exchange resins can be made with different surface areas. These surface areas may range, for example, between 7 to about 1500 m 2 /g, with average pore diameters ranging from about 50 to about 1,000,000 Angstroms. Once exhausted, resin used in the manner described herein may be regenerated. For instance, regeneration may be accomplished by a sodium hydroxide and alcohol wash. Although the resin may be included in any of a variety of constructs as described herein, operation in a plurality of ion exchange columns is preferred. Purification by ion exchange resin may be conducted, for example, at “room temperature” (i.e. about 21-23° C.), though those skilled in the art will appreciate that ion exchange may be conducted at a wide range of temperature and pressure. Those of skill in the art will also appreciate the fact that ion exchange can be implemented at various stages within the ethanol process. Such stages would include: immediately following distillation (˜90-95% ethanol), immediately following dehydration (99+% ethanol), or after nitrogen stripping, or other supplemental purification step. Possible pH values for ion exchange operations as taught herein range from about 1 to about 10. Preferred pH range for ion exchange operations as described herein is between about 8 and 9, though pH values less than 8 are effective. In a further aspect, sulfur removal is accomplished by mixture of a sulfur-containing alcohol stream with aluminum oxide (alumina), silica, aluminum silica oxide, smectite clay, montmorillonite, bentonite, a zeolite, a zeolite-like material, activated carbon, or mixtures thereof. In one aspect, an alcohol stream containing sulfur compounds is mixed with one of the foregoing materials for a period of time in a slurry, then filtered. Although applicants do not wish to be bound by theory, it is believed that sulfur compounds in the alcohol stream are either adsorbed to the material or trapped by ion exchange. After a time sufficient to reduce the amount of sulfur compounds to a desired level, the mixture is filtered and more pure alcohol filtrate is removed. Those skilled in the art will recognize, with the benefit of this disclosure, that temperature is not likely to be critical to this reaction so long as the temperature is not extreme, but that a temperature higher than room temperature is preferred. The amount of resin suitable to remove a desired amount of sulfate (or other sulfur compound) from an alcohol stream may be determined. For example, the equivalents/liter of sulfate in a given ethanol stream may be determined based on parts per liter of sulfate in the stream. The amount of alcohol treated by a given volume of resin may be determined by the formula: Volume Resin *Operating Exchange Capacity Resin /(Equivalents of Sulfur Anion/Volume Alcohol) The total ion exchange capacity of a resin is usually determined and advertised by the manufacturer. The operating capacity is the quantity of ions that a resin will bind at which the product of the resin treatment is acceptable. The operating capacity is usually determined experimentally by the user for the intended application. Those skilled in the art can determine the operating capacity and recognize that system design and operational conditions affect the operating capacity. The total ion exchange capacity often does not match the operating capacity, however the total capacity can be used to estimate amount of material that a resin can process. For example, an ethanol stream with 11.8 ppm of sulfate has 0.00025 eq/L of sulfate. (This calculation assumes that sulfate is the only sulfur anion present. If additional sulfur is present, the eq/L will be greater.) The weak base anion exchange resin Lewatit S4228 has a stated capacity of 1.8 to 1.9 eq/L, which means that 1 liter of resin could treat up to 7600 L of ethanol. The strong base anion exchange type 2 resin Dowex 22 has a stated capacity of 1.2 eq/L, for a treatment amount of 4800 L ethanol. The strong base anion exchange type 1 resin PA316, from Itochu, has a stated capacity of 1.3 eq/L, resulting in a potential treatment amount of 5200 L of ethanol. More accurate values can be calculated if the operating capacity of each resin is known. Ion exchange resin procedures usually include at least two modes of operation, the loading (service) cycle and the regeneration cycle. The service cycle, as it pertains to the present invention, relates to the time which the column is processing feed ethanol and removing the sulfur compounds from it. This aspect will be sufficiently covered elsewhere in this document. After the service cycle the resin is exhausted and should be regenerated for re-use. Regeneration may be performed, for example, by aqueous sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, potassium hydroxide, or other compounds. When using resins in alcohol or oil matrices, however, it is preferred that one does not introduce water to the system. Regeneration in these cases may be conducted using varying concentrations of sodium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide, and other compounds in ethanol/water mixtures having ratios of ethanol to water of, for example, 0:100, 50:50, 90:10, 99+:1. Preferred regenerative compositions may have, for example, a 5% (by volume) sodium hydroxide solution in an ethanol/water mixture having an ethanol to water ratio of 0.5 to 99.5. The employment of an aqueous regeneration scheme as taught herein may include four steps, though those skilled in the art of ion exchange will recognize that steps may be added, modified, or removed: 1) the evacuation of product ethanol (with water), known, in the corn sweetener industry, as the “sweeten off” step, 2) the actual regeneration step, 3) the regeneration rinse step, and 4) the evacuation of rinse water (with feed ethanol), known as the “sweeten on” step. The sweeten off step may use, for example, between about 1 to 3 bed volumes (BV) of water to evacuate product ethanol, though more or less water may be used if desired. In one embodiment, about 2 BV of water are used to get the column effluent from about 99% ethanol to less than about 5% ethanol. Circulation rate of the water may also vary, with longer circulation rates generally leading to removal of more column effluent. In one embodiment, the circulation rate is between about 1 to about 5 BV/hour, with about 3 to about 4 BV/hour being preferred. Those skilled in the art will recognize, for instance, that lower water percentage in the sweeten off step leads to lower efficiency of regeneration. For example, a solution that is about 90% water may lead to about 70% efficiency. The amount of aqueous regeneration material to be used in the regeneration step may also vary. For example, between about 2 BV to about 7 BV may be used, with 5 BV preferred. In one embodiment the aqueous regeneration material is a 5% sodium hydroxide solution. Those skilled in the art will recognize that the flow rate may be varied. A flow rate of between about 3 to about 6 BV/hour is preferred, with about 5 BV/hour being particularly preferred. Other bases, either in aqueous or organic solvents could also be used. The regeneration rinse step is preferably conducted with sufficient flow to remove the regeneration reagent from the bed; this flow varies depending on reagent. The sweeten on step may use, for example, between about 1 BV and about 6 BV of feed ethanol, where the feed ethanol has an ethanol to water ratio of between about 90:10 to about 99.5:0.5. Flow rate may vary between about 3 BV/hour to about 6 BV/hour. Preferred amounts include 2.7 BV of feed ethanol (99+%) to get the column effluent from 0% ethanol to 99+% ethanol, at 3.6 BV/HR. The resin is then placed back in service and is used again. Those of ordinary skill can appreciate the fact that these conditions are not meant, in any way, to limit the scope of embodiments herein. Other conditions may be used by those skilled in the art. In a further aspect of the invention, removal of sulfur compounds from an alcohol stream is accomplished by precipitation of sulfur compounds as barium sulfate. This may be accomplished by treatment of a sulfur-containing alcohol stream with a barium compound. Suitable barium compounds include, for example, but are not limited to, barium hydroxide and barium carbonate. Precipitation may be accomplished with compounds including other Group II elements that result in formation of sulfur compounds with little or no solubility in alcohol, particularly ethanol. Suitable compounds including Group II elements may include strontium or radium. For example, hydroxides and carbonates of radium or strontium may be useful in the invention. Sulfur compounds may be removed from an alcohol stream, for example, by mixing the alcohol stream with barium hydroxide in a slurry for a period of time. Because barium sulfate is either insoluble or very sparingly soluble in alcohol barium sulfate will precipitate from the mixture. The mixture may be filtered, and the purified alcohol filtrate may be collected. In one aspect, mixture and filtrate are accomplished simultaneously by use of a continuous filter, or by use of a filter impregnated with a barium compound. In a further aspect of the invention, removal of sulfur compounds from an alcohol stream is accomplished by contacting an alcohol stream that contains one or more sulfur compounds with one or more metals. A metal surface can remove both sulfate and other sulfur compounds that can be oxidized to sulfate. Metals that may be used include, but are not limited to, iron, copper, or zinc. The contact between the metal and the alcohol stream can be accomplished by the addition of pure metals, metal alloys, or combinations thereof to an alcohol stream. The metal is then separated from the alcohol by filtration, evaporation, or another method known to those skilled in the art. In a further embodiment, an alcohol stream is passed through a bed of metal particles or metal wool. Like other embodiments of the invention, this embodiment may be used, for example, to meet a maximum sulfate specification in fuel alcohol. It may also be used to meet a specification limiting sulfur compounds that may be converted to sulfate by oxidation; this may occur, for example, during a peroxide conversion sulfate test. Removal of sulfur compounds from an alcohol stream using metal contact may be used in conjunction (either simultaneously or successively) with other methods described herein. For example, metal contact may be used in conjunction with an ion exchange resin used to reduce sulfates. In the event that metal ions leach during this process, they may be removed using any method known to those of skill in the art. For example, leached metal may be removed with a cation exchange resin or a chelating resin. In a further embodiment of the invention, metals used to remove sulfur compounds are attached to substrates, including but not limited to non-metallic substrates or ion exchange resins. Those skilled in the art will recognize, with the teachings herein, that this method may be used with a variety of metals and on a variety of alcohol streams. With the benefit of this disclosure, the period of time necessary to achieve desired reduction of sulfur in the methods taught herein may be readily determined. Generally, longer treatment times lead to greater removal of sulfur compounds, though a point of diminishing return for time invested will eventually be reached. Although methods taught herein may be useful in treatment of alcohol streams bearing any initial sulfur load, in a preferred embodiment of the invention, the alcohol stream to be treated includes at least 1 ppm sulfur compounds, at least 2 ppm sulfur compounds, 3 ppm sulfur compounds, at least 4 ppm sulfur compounds, at least 5 ppm sulfur compounds, at least 6 ppm sulfur compounds, at least 7 ppm sulfur compounds, at least 8 ppm sulfur compounds, at least 9 ppm sulfur compounds, at least 10 ppm sulfur compounds, at least 11 ppm sulfur compounds, and at least 12 ppm sulfur compounds. Methods taught herein may reduce the amount of sulfur compounds in an alcohol stream to at or below a desired level. In various embodiments of the invention, for example, the amount of sulfur compounds is reduced to no more than 4 ppm, no more than 3 ppm, no more than 2 ppm, no more than 1 ppm, and no more than 0.5 ppm. Sulfur compounds may be included in an alcohol stream for a variety of reasons, and the specific mechanism by which a sulfur compound has been introduced to an alcohol stream may not be relevant to determination of the way in which it is removed. Sulfur compounds may be introduced to an ethanol stream, for example, during production of an ethanol stream from corn products in a wet milling plant or in a dry milling plant. Milling processes that may introduce sulfur into an ethanol stream are shown in FIG.1 and FIG.2, Those skilled in the art will recognize that a number of methods exist for measuring the concentration of sulfur in an alcohol stream. For example, one may measure the concentration of sulfur using an ion chromatography column with a conductivity detector. The mobile phase in the column typically is a solution of water, methanol, and sodium hydroxide. Other methods of measuring sulfur compounds in an alcohol stream include ASTM methods D2622-03 (“Wavelength Dispersible X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer”) and D5453-03a (“Sulfur Analyzer”). The methods taught herein may be used alone or in combination. When used in combination, removal methods may be simultaneous (either taking place in a single reaction vessel or in parallel) or serial. Removal steps may be repeated or varied as desired to increase efficacy. Those skilled in the art will, with the benefit of this disclosure, recognize that there are a variety of ways in which an alcohol stream may be put into contact with the sulfur-removing compositions described herein. For example, a stream may be admixed with a sulfur-removing composition in a slurry, mixing tank, ion exchange column, moving-bed ion exchange device, counter-current ion exchange device, continuous filter, or filter impregnated with the composition. Throughput may be continuous or in a batch process. Where necessary, spent sulfur-removal material may be removed, for example, by filtration, centrifugation or gravity-assisted sedimentation. EXAMPLES The following examples demonstrate aspects of the invention in greater detail. The examples are not intended to limit the scope of the various aspects of the invention. Example 1—Removal of Sulfur from Ethanol Using Anion Exchange Resin Several tests were completed in which a 0.1 L sample of ethanol including about 12 ppm sulfate was placed in a beaker with 0.005 L of anion exchange resin and stirred at room temperature. After about one hour each ethanol sample was tested for sulfate level. A sulfate level of less than 1 ppm (measured by ion chromatography) was achieved in tests with macro porous resins, including in tests with weak base anion resins (for example, Dowex 66, available from the Dow Chemical Company) and in tests with strong base anion resins (for example, Amberlyst A26, available from Rohm and Haas Company, and Dowex 22, available from the Dow Chemical Company). A test with Amberlyst A24, a gel-type resin, did not reduce the sulfate level below 1 ppm. Example 2—Removal of Sulfur from Ethanol using Bentonite Clay and Other Adsorbents Several tests were completed in which a 100 ml sample of 200 proof ethanol containing about 11.7 ppm sulfate (and about 0 ppm sulfite) was combined with 5.0 g of an adsorbent in a 250 ml Pyrex screw cap bottle. The solution was placed in a heated water bath and allowed to run overnight (at least 8 hours) at about 50° C. with stirring. The solution was removed from the bath and run through 1 micron filter paper; the resulting ethyl alcohol filtrate was submitted for ion chromatography analysis of sulfite and sulfate content. Adsorbents used and resulting amounts of sulfite and sulfate are shown in Table 1.
|Adsorbent||Content (ppm)||Sulfate Content (ppm)|
/tables> Example 3—Removal of Sulfur from Ethanol Using Barium Salts About 0.085 g of barium hydroxide was added to 0.250 L of ethanol and stirred for about one hour. The mixture was filtered using 0.2 micron filter paper. The filtrate was analyzed with ion chromatography. The filtrate contained about 1.9 mg/l of sulfate. Example 4—Regeneration of Ion Exchange Column Regeneration of an ion exchange unit used for sulfur removal from and ethanol stream was performed. About 2.1 bed volumes (BV) of water were circulated at 3.6 BV/hour, reducing the column effluent from 99+% ethanol to less than 0.5% ethanol. About 5 BV of an aqueous solution of 5% sodium hydroxide was circulated at about 5 BV/hour for regeneration. The regeneration rinse step was conducted using 5 BV of Deionized water at a rate of about 5 BV/hour. The sweeten on step was conducted with 2.7 BV of feed ethanol (99+% ethanol) to drive the column effluent from 0% ethanol to 99+% ethanol, at 3.6 BV/HR. The resin was then placed back in service and is used again. Example 5—Purification by Electrodialysis and Electrodeionization In electrodialysis and electrodeionization method, an electrical driving force (voltage) is used to transport ions across ion exchange membranes. Ethanol solutions containing>10 ppm sulfate ions are circulated through an electrodialysis stack. The stack consists of a series of alternating cells made of cation exchange and anion exchange membranes in a parallel array to form compartments. A suitable DC voltage (30-40 volts) is applied across the stack. Sulfate ions permeate through the anion exchange membrane toward the anode resulting in a retentate portion that is essentially free (<0.5 ppm) of sulfate ion. The space between anion membrane and cation membrane are filled up with ion exchange resins or porous ion exchange sheet to facilitate the transport of the sulfate ions at a very low concentration. Example 6—Purification by Metal Contact An experiment was completed in which samples of ethanol were contacted with one of the materials listed in Table 2. The samples were shaken for about one hour and allowed to settle. A portion of liquid from each sample was decanted for analysis. The materials tested were iron powder, copper powder, steel wool, and bronze wool. The dosage was two grams of metal per 70 milliliters of ethanol. The analysis consisted of testing for sulfate and sulfite by ion chromatography before and after oxidation with hydrogen peroxide. Oxidation with hydrogen peroxide was done to convert all sulfur compounds into sulfate.
|As is analysis||Oxidized analysis|
/tables> These results demonstrate a reduction in non-oxidized sulfate concentration from 1 mg/L to 0.3 mg/L and a reduction in oxidized sulfate from 8.4 mg/L to 1.0 mg/L. Other metals in different combinations may be tested. Loading metal particles or metal wool into a column and passing alcohol through it will demonstrate additional sulfate reduction. The quantity of a metal that is required to reduce the sulfur containing compound level sufficiently would be determined experimentally. Physical and chemical treatments intended to regenerate a saturated adsorbent may also be used, as will physical and chemical treatment of metal surfaces to increase catalytic or absorption properties. These conditions include, but are not limited to, cleaning, abrading, reforming, thermal treatment, oxidation or reduction, acid or base treatment, or other methods. Various metals attached to non-metallic substrates or metal ions bound to ion exchange resins may also be used. Whereas particular embodiments of the instant invention have been described for purposes of illustration, it will be evident to those persons skilled in the art that numerous variations may be made without departing from the instant invention as defined in the appended claims.
What do they use to filter moonshine?
Activated carbon is used in the filtration of spirits to remove color and flavor, especially in white spirits.
How do you purify alcohol?
Distillation is the most dominant and recognized industrial purification technique of ethanol. It utilizes the differences of volatilities of components in a mixture. The basic principle is that by heating a mixture, low boiling point components are concentrated in the vapor phase.